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Salt and the metabolic syndrome.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2009 Feb; 19(2):123-8.NM

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS

High blood pressure in subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MS) is largely related to dietary salt. We investigated in free-living men and women whether increase in dietary salt intake is associated with the presence and severity of the MS.

METHODS AND RESULTS

A total of 766 subjects (251M, 515F) of 44.9+/-0.5 years/age and SBP/DBP of 120+/-0.6/77+/-0.4 mmHg were studied. Twenty-four hour urinary sodium (UNa(+)) and potassium (UK(+)) excretions were 143+/-2.5 mmol (median: 131.5) and 48+/-0.9 mmol (median: 44). UNa(+) was higher in men than in women (median: 155.5 vs. 119.8 mmol/day; P<0.0001). UK(+) (r=0.34; P<0.0001), measures of obesity (r=0.26; P<0.0001) and BP (r=0.15; P<0.0001) were significantly associated with UNa(+). The association with BP was lost after adjusting for weight. Of the 766 subjects, 256 (33.4%) met the NCEP-ATPIII criteria for the MS. Median UNa(+) in men and women with no traits of the MS was 140 and 116.7 mmol/day, respectively (P<0.001), increasing to 176 in men and 135 mmol/day in women with 4-5 components of the syndrome (P<0.001). Weight, BMI and waist increased significantly across the quartiles of UNa(+) both in men and women; whereas, age, lipids and fasting glucose did not. SBP and DBP were associated with UNa(+) in men but not in women. UK(+) correlated with age in men and women (r=023; P<0.0001) and with obesity in women (r=0.14; P=0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

UNa(+) a measure of dietary sodium intake in free-living subjects was markedly increased in subjects with the MS. Higher UNa(+) was associated with obesity and higher BP, but not with age, dyslipidemia or fasting glucose.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Center for the Detection and Treatment of Silent Risk Factors for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases, Clinical Pharmacology Unit, School of Pharmacy, Central University of Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18556187

Citation

Hoffmann, Irene S., and Luigi X. Cubeddu. "Salt and the Metabolic Syndrome." Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD, vol. 19, no. 2, 2009, pp. 123-8.
Hoffmann IS, Cubeddu LX. Salt and the metabolic syndrome. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2009;19(2):123-8.
Hoffmann, I. S., & Cubeddu, L. X. (2009). Salt and the metabolic syndrome. Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases : NMCD, 19(2), 123-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2008.02.011
Hoffmann IS, Cubeddu LX. Salt and the Metabolic Syndrome. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2009;19(2):123-8. PubMed PMID: 18556187.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Salt and the metabolic syndrome. AU - Hoffmann,Irene S, AU - Cubeddu,Luigi X, Y1 - 2008/06/16/ PY - 2007/11/16/received PY - 2008/02/15/revised PY - 2008/02/29/accepted PY - 2008/6/17/pubmed PY - 2009/5/1/medline PY - 2008/6/17/entrez SP - 123 EP - 8 JF - Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases : NMCD JO - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis VL - 19 IS - 2 N2 - BACKGROUND AND AIMS: High blood pressure in subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MS) is largely related to dietary salt. We investigated in free-living men and women whether increase in dietary salt intake is associated with the presence and severity of the MS. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 766 subjects (251M, 515F) of 44.9+/-0.5 years/age and SBP/DBP of 120+/-0.6/77+/-0.4 mmHg were studied. Twenty-four hour urinary sodium (UNa(+)) and potassium (UK(+)) excretions were 143+/-2.5 mmol (median: 131.5) and 48+/-0.9 mmol (median: 44). UNa(+) was higher in men than in women (median: 155.5 vs. 119.8 mmol/day; P<0.0001). UK(+) (r=0.34; P<0.0001), measures of obesity (r=0.26; P<0.0001) and BP (r=0.15; P<0.0001) were significantly associated with UNa(+). The association with BP was lost after adjusting for weight. Of the 766 subjects, 256 (33.4%) met the NCEP-ATPIII criteria for the MS. Median UNa(+) in men and women with no traits of the MS was 140 and 116.7 mmol/day, respectively (P<0.001), increasing to 176 in men and 135 mmol/day in women with 4-5 components of the syndrome (P<0.001). Weight, BMI and waist increased significantly across the quartiles of UNa(+) both in men and women; whereas, age, lipids and fasting glucose did not. SBP and DBP were associated with UNa(+) in men but not in women. UK(+) correlated with age in men and women (r=023; P<0.0001) and with obesity in women (r=0.14; P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: UNa(+) a measure of dietary sodium intake in free-living subjects was markedly increased in subjects with the MS. Higher UNa(+) was associated with obesity and higher BP, but not with age, dyslipidemia or fasting glucose. SN - 1590-3729 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18556187/Salt_and_the_metabolic_syndrome_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0939-4753(08)00060-4 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -