Effects of dietary sunflower seeds and tylosin phosphate on production variables, carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition, and liver abscess incidence in crossbred steers.J Anim Sci. 2008 Nov; 86(11):3125-36.JA
A 2 x 2 factorial experiment with 48 crossbred steers (with Hereford, Angus, and Charolais genetics, and an initial BW of 373 +/- 8.4 kg) was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary sunflower seeds (SS) and tylosin phosphate (TP) on production factors, carcass characteristics, liver abscess incidence, and fatty acid composition of the muscle (pars costalis diaphragmatis; PCD) and subcutaneous fat. Individually penned steers were fed either a control diet of 84.5% rolled barley, 14% barley silage, and 1.5% mineral and vitamin mix on a DM basis, or an SS diet, in which SS replaced 15% of the diet. Half the animals fed each diet received TP at 11 mg/kg of DM as a top dressing. Interactions were significant for all production factors. A reduction (P = 0.008) in DMI was observed from 10.1 +/- 0.4 kg/d, in steers fed the control diet, to 8.9 +/- 0.3 and 8.6 +/- 0.3 kg/d, in steers fed the SS and SS + TP diets, respectively. Greater (P = 0.014) ADG was observed for steers fed the control diet than for those fed the SS or SS + TP diet (1.4 vs. 1.1 and 1.2, SE = 0.1 kg/d, respectively); however, G:F ratios were greater (P = 0.011) in steers fed the control diets than in those fed the SS diets. Steers fed the control and SS diets had the heaviest and lightest HCW (347 +/- 6.9 vs. 325 +/- 8.4 kg; P = 0.025), respectively. Lean meat yield (%) of steers fed SS was greater (P = 0.117) than in steers fed the control diets, whereas total lean yield [(HCW x lean meat yield)/100] was similar (P = 0.755). Provision of the SS or SS + TP diet eliminated (P = 0.08 for interaction) liver abscesses compared with the 36 and 9% incidence in steers fed the control or control + TP diet, respectively. Fatty acid weight percentages (wt%) followed similar patterns in PCD and subcutaneous fat. Feeding the SS diets led to greater (P = 0.001) wt% of 18:0 and 18:2n-6, but reduced the wt% of 16:0, 9-cis (c)-18:1, and 18:3n-3 in PCD compared with that in steers fed the control diets, but the wt% of 9c,11-trans (t), and 10t,12c CLA were increased (P = 0.001) by 36 and 400% in PCD. Dietary SS increased (P < 0.001) the wt% of trans-18:1 isomers. The 10t-18:1 and 11t-18:1 isomers were the greatest, but dietary TP elevated (P = 0.004) only 10t-18:1, and total trans-18:1 (excluding 11t-18:1) was 0.47 +/- 0.06 g/100 g of PCD. Dietary SS for finishing steers reduced the incidence of liver abscesses without affecting total lean yield of the carcass, with modest increases in trans fatty acids and in potentially beneficial fatty acids (11t-18:1 and CLA).