Crystal form and phase structure of poly(vinylidene fluoride)/polyamide 11/clay nanocomposites by high-shear processing.J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2008 Apr; 8(4):1714-20.JN
Polyamide 11 (PA11)/clay, Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)/clay and PVDF/PA11/clay nanocomposites were prepared by melt processing using a high shear extruder. Two types of organoclay with different modified alkyl tails and different polarities were used for PA11 and PVDF nanocomposites. PA11 nanocomposites derived from an organoclay having one alkyl tail show a well-exfoliated morphology but no crystal form transformation, whereas those derived from an organoclay having two alkyl tails give a little worse clay dispersion with the clear alpha to gamma crystal form transition with the addition of the clay. In contrast, the PVDF composites derived from the two organoclays result in a poor dispersion. In addition, PVDF/PA11 blend nanocomposites with a novel morphology have been fabricated using the high-shear extruder. It was found that the clay platelets were selectively dispersed in the PA11 phase with the size of larger than 200 nm, while no clay platelets were located in the PVDF phase and in the PA11 nanodomains with the size of smaller than 200 nm. Moreover, the addition of organoclay shows significant effects on the phase structure of PVDF/PA11 blends.