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Integration of GC/EI-MS and GC/NCI-MS for simultaneous quantitative determination of opiates, amphetamines, MDMA, ketamine, and metabolites in human hair.
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2008 Jul 15; 870(2):192-202.JC

Abstract

In this paper, the possibility of using a multiple ionization mode approach of GC/MS was developed for the simultaneous hair testing of common drugs of abuse in Asia, including amphetamines (amphetamine, AP; methamphetamine, MA; methylenedioxy amphetamine, MDA; methylenedioxy methamphetamine, MDMA; methylenedioxy ethylamphetamine, MDEA), ketamine (ketamine, K; norketamine, NK), and opiates (morphine, MOR; codeine, COD; 6-acetylmorphine, 6-AM). This strategy integrated the characteristics of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using electron impact ionization (EI) and negative chemical ionization (NCI). Hair samples (25 mg) were washed, cut, and incubated overnight at 25 degrees C in methanol-trifluoroacetic acid (methanol-TFA). The samples were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure, derivatized using heptafluorobutyric acid anhydride (HFBA) at 70 degrees C for 30 min, and the derivatives analyzed by GC-MS with EI and NCI. The limit of detection (LOD) with GC/EI-MS analysis obtained were 0.03 ng/mg for AP, MA, MDA, MDMA, and MDEA; 0.05 ng/mg for K, NK, MOR, and COD; and 0.08 ng/mg for 6-AM. The LOD of GC/NCI-MS analysis was much lower than GC/EI-MS analysis. The LOD obtained were 30 pg/mg for AP and MDA in GC/EI-MS and 2 pg/mg in GC/NCI-MS. Therefore, the sensitivity of AP and MDA in GC/NCI-MS was improved from 15-fold compared with EI. The sensitivity of AP, MA, MDA, MDMA, MDEA, MOR, and COD was improved from 15- to 60-fold compared with EI. In addition, the sensitivity of 6-AM increased 8-fold through selection of m/z 197 for the quantitative ion. Moreover, K and NK could dramatically improve their sensitivity at 200- and 2000-fold. The integration of GC/EI-MS and GC/NCI-MS can obtain the high sensitivity and complementary results of drugs of abuse in hair. Six hair samples from known drug abusers were examined by this new strategy. These results show that integrating the characteristics of GC/EI-MS and GC/NCI-MS were not only enhancement of the sensitivity but also avoid wrong results and wrong interpretations of correct results.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Institute of Medical and Molecular Toxicology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18585989

Citation

Wu, Ya-Hsueh, et al. "Integration of GC/EI-MS and GC/NCI-MS for Simultaneous Quantitative Determination of Opiates, Amphetamines, MDMA, Ketamine, and Metabolites in Human Hair." Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, vol. 870, no. 2, 2008, pp. 192-202.
Wu YH, Lin KL, Chen SC, et al. Integration of GC/EI-MS and GC/NCI-MS for simultaneous quantitative determination of opiates, amphetamines, MDMA, ketamine, and metabolites in human hair. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2008;870(2):192-202.
Wu, Y. H., Lin, K. L., Chen, S. C., & Chang, Y. Z. (2008). Integration of GC/EI-MS and GC/NCI-MS for simultaneous quantitative determination of opiates, amphetamines, MDMA, ketamine, and metabolites in human hair. Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, 870(2), 192-202. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2008.06.017
Wu YH, et al. Integration of GC/EI-MS and GC/NCI-MS for Simultaneous Quantitative Determination of Opiates, Amphetamines, MDMA, Ketamine, and Metabolites in Human Hair. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2008 Jul 15;870(2):192-202. PubMed PMID: 18585989.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Integration of GC/EI-MS and GC/NCI-MS for simultaneous quantitative determination of opiates, amphetamines, MDMA, ketamine, and metabolites in human hair. AU - Wu,Ya-Hsueh, AU - Lin,Keh-Liang, AU - Chen,Su-Chin, AU - Chang,Yan-Zin, Y1 - 2008/06/17/ PY - 2008/03/28/received PY - 2008/05/23/revised PY - 2008/06/04/accepted PY - 2008/7/1/pubmed PY - 2008/10/23/medline PY - 2008/7/1/entrez SP - 192 EP - 202 JF - Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences JO - J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci. VL - 870 IS - 2 N2 - In this paper, the possibility of using a multiple ionization mode approach of GC/MS was developed for the simultaneous hair testing of common drugs of abuse in Asia, including amphetamines (amphetamine, AP; methamphetamine, MA; methylenedioxy amphetamine, MDA; methylenedioxy methamphetamine, MDMA; methylenedioxy ethylamphetamine, MDEA), ketamine (ketamine, K; norketamine, NK), and opiates (morphine, MOR; codeine, COD; 6-acetylmorphine, 6-AM). This strategy integrated the characteristics of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using electron impact ionization (EI) and negative chemical ionization (NCI). Hair samples (25 mg) were washed, cut, and incubated overnight at 25 degrees C in methanol-trifluoroacetic acid (methanol-TFA). The samples were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure, derivatized using heptafluorobutyric acid anhydride (HFBA) at 70 degrees C for 30 min, and the derivatives analyzed by GC-MS with EI and NCI. The limit of detection (LOD) with GC/EI-MS analysis obtained were 0.03 ng/mg for AP, MA, MDA, MDMA, and MDEA; 0.05 ng/mg for K, NK, MOR, and COD; and 0.08 ng/mg for 6-AM. The LOD of GC/NCI-MS analysis was much lower than GC/EI-MS analysis. The LOD obtained were 30 pg/mg for AP and MDA in GC/EI-MS and 2 pg/mg in GC/NCI-MS. Therefore, the sensitivity of AP and MDA in GC/NCI-MS was improved from 15-fold compared with EI. The sensitivity of AP, MA, MDA, MDMA, MDEA, MOR, and COD was improved from 15- to 60-fold compared with EI. In addition, the sensitivity of 6-AM increased 8-fold through selection of m/z 197 for the quantitative ion. Moreover, K and NK could dramatically improve their sensitivity at 200- and 2000-fold. The integration of GC/EI-MS and GC/NCI-MS can obtain the high sensitivity and complementary results of drugs of abuse in hair. Six hair samples from known drug abusers were examined by this new strategy. These results show that integrating the characteristics of GC/EI-MS and GC/NCI-MS were not only enhancement of the sensitivity but also avoid wrong results and wrong interpretations of correct results. SN - 1570-0232 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18585989/Integration_of_GC/EI_MS_and_GC/NCI_MS_for_simultaneous_quantitative_determination_of_opiates_amphetamines_MDMA_ketamine_and_metabolites_in_human_hair_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1570-0232(08)00430-3 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -