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The content of favorable and unfavorable polyunsaturated fatty acids found in commonly eaten fish.
J Am Diet Assoc. 2008 Jul; 108(7):1178-85.JA

Abstract

Changes in diet during the past century have caused a marked increase in consumption of saturated fatty acids and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with a concomitant decrease in the intake of n-3 PUFAs. Increased fish consumption has been shown to be the only realistic way to increase dietary quantities of beneficial long-chain n-3 PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid and re-establish more balanced n-6:n-3 ratios in the diets of human beings. Our objective in this research was to characterize some of the relevant fatty acid chemistry of commonly consumed fish, with a particular focus on the four most commonly consumed farmed fish. To do this, 30 commonly consumed farmed and wild fish were collected from supermarkets and wholesalers throughout the United States. Fatty acid composition of samples from these fish was determined using gas chromatography. The 30 samples studied contained n-3 PUFAs ranging from fish having almost undetectable levels to fish having nearly 4.0 g n-3 PUFA per 100 g fish. The four most commonly farmed fish, Atlantic salmon, trout, tilapia, and catfish, were more closely examined. This analysis revealed that trout and Atlantic salmon contained relatively high concentrations of n-3 PUFA, low n-6:n-3 ratios, and favorable saturated fatty acid plus monounsaturated fatty acid to PUFA ratios. In contrast, tilapia (the fastest growing and most widely farmed fish) and catfish have much lower concentrations of n-3 PUFA, very high ratios of long chain n-6 to long chain n-3 PUFAs, and high saturated fatty acid plus monounsaturated fatty acid to PUFA ratios. Taken together, these data reveal that marked changes in the fishing industry during the past decade have produced widely eaten fish that have fatty acid characteristics that are generally accepted to be inflammatory by the health care community.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Internal Medicine, Section on Molecular Medicine, Wake Forest Center for Botanical Lipids, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27101, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18589026

Citation

Weaver, Kelly L., et al. "The Content of Favorable and Unfavorable Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Found in Commonly Eaten Fish." Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 108, no. 7, 2008, pp. 1178-85.
Weaver KL, Ivester P, Chilton JA, et al. The content of favorable and unfavorable polyunsaturated fatty acids found in commonly eaten fish. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108(7):1178-85.
Weaver, K. L., Ivester, P., Chilton, J. A., Wilson, M. D., Pandey, P., & Chilton, F. H. (2008). The content of favorable and unfavorable polyunsaturated fatty acids found in commonly eaten fish. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 108(7), 1178-85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2008.04.023
Weaver KL, et al. The Content of Favorable and Unfavorable Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Found in Commonly Eaten Fish. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108(7):1178-85. PubMed PMID: 18589026.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The content of favorable and unfavorable polyunsaturated fatty acids found in commonly eaten fish. AU - Weaver,Kelly L, AU - Ivester,Priscilla, AU - Chilton,Joshua A, AU - Wilson,Martha D, AU - Pandey,Prativa, AU - Chilton,Floyd H, PY - 2007/06/12/received PY - 2008/01/08/accepted PY - 2008/7/1/pubmed PY - 2008/7/18/medline PY - 2008/7/1/entrez SP - 1178 EP - 85 JF - Journal of the American Dietetic Association JO - J Am Diet Assoc VL - 108 IS - 7 N2 - Changes in diet during the past century have caused a marked increase in consumption of saturated fatty acids and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with a concomitant decrease in the intake of n-3 PUFAs. Increased fish consumption has been shown to be the only realistic way to increase dietary quantities of beneficial long-chain n-3 PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid and re-establish more balanced n-6:n-3 ratios in the diets of human beings. Our objective in this research was to characterize some of the relevant fatty acid chemistry of commonly consumed fish, with a particular focus on the four most commonly consumed farmed fish. To do this, 30 commonly consumed farmed and wild fish were collected from supermarkets and wholesalers throughout the United States. Fatty acid composition of samples from these fish was determined using gas chromatography. The 30 samples studied contained n-3 PUFAs ranging from fish having almost undetectable levels to fish having nearly 4.0 g n-3 PUFA per 100 g fish. The four most commonly farmed fish, Atlantic salmon, trout, tilapia, and catfish, were more closely examined. This analysis revealed that trout and Atlantic salmon contained relatively high concentrations of n-3 PUFA, low n-6:n-3 ratios, and favorable saturated fatty acid plus monounsaturated fatty acid to PUFA ratios. In contrast, tilapia (the fastest growing and most widely farmed fish) and catfish have much lower concentrations of n-3 PUFA, very high ratios of long chain n-6 to long chain n-3 PUFAs, and high saturated fatty acid plus monounsaturated fatty acid to PUFA ratios. Taken together, these data reveal that marked changes in the fishing industry during the past decade have produced widely eaten fish that have fatty acid characteristics that are generally accepted to be inflammatory by the health care community. SN - 0002-8223 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18589026/The_content_of_favorable_and_unfavorable_polyunsaturated_fatty_acids_found_in_commonly_eaten_fish_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0002-8223(08)00515-4 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -