Effects of coextrusion of flaxseed and field pea on the digestibility of energy, ether extract, fatty acids, protein, and amino acids in grower-finisher pigs.J Anim Sci. 2008 Nov; 86(11):2942-51.JA
The objectives of this study were to determine the ileal and total tract digestibility of individual fatty acids, ether extract, energy, protein, and AA in a mix of flax and field pea (FP) and to determine whether extrusion improves the nutritive value of this mix. Five barrows (23-kg initial BW) fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum were fed 5 diets at 3 times the maintenance energy requirement according to a 5 x 5 Latin square design: a wheat and soybean meal control diet and 4 diets containing 30% raw or coextruded FP plus 70% control diet and chromic oxide as an indigestible marker. The 4 extrusion treatments included the following: 1) FP0, ground, nonextruded; 2) FP1, single-screw extruded; 3) FP2, twin-screw extruded with low intensity (screw speed 120 rpm; die temperature 110 degrees C; water input 5 kg/h); and 4) FP3, twin-screw extruded with high intensity (300 rpm; 125 degrees C; 11 kg/h). The ether extract concentration was 17.8, 19.6, 17.7, and 17.3% (as fed) in FP0, FP1, FP2, and FP4, respectively. The ADF concentration was 13.2, 11.1, 11.4, and 13.7% (as fed) in FP0, FP1, FP2, and FP4, respectively. After a 7-d acclimation, feces were collected for 2 d, and then ileal digesta was collected for 2 d. Energy digestibility in the test ingredients was calculated using the difference method. Extrusion of FP did not affect the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of DM, OM, and CP for grower-finisher pigs. Extrusion increased (P < 0.05) the ATTD of GE and ether extract and the DE content of FP, and the AID of the Arg, Ile, Leu, Lys, Phe, Thr, and Val, and total fatty acids. Extrusion tended to increase (P < 0.10) the AID of linolenic acid. Single-screw extrusion resulted in a greater (P < 0.05) ATTD of GE, OM, ether extract, and DE content of FP and AID of SFA than twin-screw extrusion. Single-screw extrusion resulted in a trend for greater (P < 0.10) AID of linolenic acid and total fatty acids than twin-screw extrusion. Twin-screw extrusion at high intensity resulted in less (P < 0.05) AID of SFA than twin-screw extrusion at low intensity, indicating that equipment and conditions should be carefully controlled for the extrusion of FP. In conclusion, coextrusion of FP increased digestibility of ether extract, fatty acids, energy, and AA.