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Effects of short-term acid and aluminum exposure on the parr-smolt transformation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): disruption of seawater tolerance and endocrine status.
Gen Comp Endocrinol 2008; 158(1):122-30GC

Abstract

Episodic acidification resulting in increased acidity and inorganic aluminum (Al(i)) is known to interfere with the parr-smolt transformation of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and has been implicated as a possible cause of population decline. To determine the extent and mechanism(s) by which short-term acid/Al exposure compromises smolt development, Atlantic salmon smolts were exposed to either control (pH 6.7-6.9) or acid/Al (pH 5.4-6.3, 28-64 microgl(-1) Al(i)) conditions for 2 and 5 days, and impacts on freshwater (FW) ion regulation, seawater (SW) tolerance, plasma hormone levels and stress response were examined. Gill Al concentrations were elevated in all smolts exposed to acid/Al relative to controls confirming exposure to increased Al(i). There was no effect of acid/Al on plasma ion concentrations in FW however, smolts exposed to acid/Al followed by a 24h SW challenge exhibited greater plasma Cl(-) levels than controls, indicating reduced SW tolerance. Loss of SW tolerance was accompanied by reductions in gill Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (NKA) activity and Na(+),K(+),2Cl(-) (NKCC) cotransporter protein abundance. Acid/Al exposure resulted in decreased plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and 3,3',5'-triiodo-l-thyronine (T(3)) levels, whereas no effect of treatment was seen on plasma cortisol, growth hormone (GH), or thyroxine (T(4)) levels. Acid/Al exposure resulted in increased hematocrit and plasma glucose levels in FW, but both returned to control levels after 24h in SW. The results indicate that smolt development and SW tolerance are compromised by short-term exposure to acid/Al in the absence of detectable impacts on FW ion regulation. Loss of SW tolerance during short-term acid/Al exposure likely results from reductions in gill NKA and NKCC, possibly mediated by decreases in plasma IGF-I and T(3).

Authors+Show Affiliations

Graduate Program in Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, University of Massachusetts, 611 N. Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003, USA. michelle.monette@yale.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18606407

Citation

Monette, Michelle Y., et al. "Effects of Short-term Acid and Aluminum Exposure On the Parr-smolt Transformation in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar): Disruption of Seawater Tolerance and Endocrine Status." General and Comparative Endocrinology, vol. 158, no. 1, 2008, pp. 122-30.
Monette MY, Björnsson BT, McCormick SD. Effects of short-term acid and aluminum exposure on the parr-smolt transformation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): disruption of seawater tolerance and endocrine status. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2008;158(1):122-30.
Monette, M. Y., Björnsson, B. T., & McCormick, S. D. (2008). Effects of short-term acid and aluminum exposure on the parr-smolt transformation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): disruption of seawater tolerance and endocrine status. General and Comparative Endocrinology, 158(1), pp. 122-30. doi:10.1016/j.ygcen.2008.05.014.
Monette MY, Björnsson BT, McCormick SD. Effects of Short-term Acid and Aluminum Exposure On the Parr-smolt Transformation in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar): Disruption of Seawater Tolerance and Endocrine Status. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2008;158(1):122-30. PubMed PMID: 18606407.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of short-term acid and aluminum exposure on the parr-smolt transformation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): disruption of seawater tolerance and endocrine status. AU - Monette,Michelle Y, AU - Björnsson,Björn Thrandur, AU - McCormick,Stephen D, Y1 - 2008/05/29/ PY - 2008/03/11/received PY - 2008/05/09/revised PY - 2008/05/22/accepted PY - 2008/7/9/pubmed PY - 2008/10/9/medline PY - 2008/7/9/entrez SP - 122 EP - 30 JF - General and comparative endocrinology JO - Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. VL - 158 IS - 1 N2 - Episodic acidification resulting in increased acidity and inorganic aluminum (Al(i)) is known to interfere with the parr-smolt transformation of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and has been implicated as a possible cause of population decline. To determine the extent and mechanism(s) by which short-term acid/Al exposure compromises smolt development, Atlantic salmon smolts were exposed to either control (pH 6.7-6.9) or acid/Al (pH 5.4-6.3, 28-64 microgl(-1) Al(i)) conditions for 2 and 5 days, and impacts on freshwater (FW) ion regulation, seawater (SW) tolerance, plasma hormone levels and stress response were examined. Gill Al concentrations were elevated in all smolts exposed to acid/Al relative to controls confirming exposure to increased Al(i). There was no effect of acid/Al on plasma ion concentrations in FW however, smolts exposed to acid/Al followed by a 24h SW challenge exhibited greater plasma Cl(-) levels than controls, indicating reduced SW tolerance. Loss of SW tolerance was accompanied by reductions in gill Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (NKA) activity and Na(+),K(+),2Cl(-) (NKCC) cotransporter protein abundance. Acid/Al exposure resulted in decreased plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and 3,3',5'-triiodo-l-thyronine (T(3)) levels, whereas no effect of treatment was seen on plasma cortisol, growth hormone (GH), or thyroxine (T(4)) levels. Acid/Al exposure resulted in increased hematocrit and plasma glucose levels in FW, but both returned to control levels after 24h in SW. The results indicate that smolt development and SW tolerance are compromised by short-term exposure to acid/Al in the absence of detectable impacts on FW ion regulation. Loss of SW tolerance during short-term acid/Al exposure likely results from reductions in gill NKA and NKCC, possibly mediated by decreases in plasma IGF-I and T(3). SN - 1095-6840 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18606407/Effects_of_short_term_acid_and_aluminum_exposure_on_the_parr_smolt_transformation_in_Atlantic_salmon__Salmo_salar_:_disruption_of_seawater_tolerance_and_endocrine_status_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0016-6480(08)00203-7 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -