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CCL2 protects prostate cancer PC3 cells from autophagic death via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT-dependent survivin up-regulation.
J Biol Chem. 2008 Sep 05; 283(36):25057-73.JB

Abstract

Resistance to cell death is a hallmark of cancer. Autophagy is a survival mechanism activated in response to nutrient deprivation; however, excessive autophagy will ultimately induce cell death in a nonapoptotic manner. The present study demonstrates that CCL2 protects prostate cancer PC3 cells from autophagic death, allowing prolonged survival in serum-free conditions. Upon serum starvation, CCL2 induced survivin up-regulation in PC3, DU 145, and C4-2B prostate cancer cells. Both cell survival and survivin expression were stunted in CCL2-stimulated PC3 cells when treated either with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 (2 microm) or the Akt-specific inhibitor-X (Akti-X; 2.5 microm). Furthermore, CCL2 significantly reduced light chain 3-II (LC3-II) in serum-starved PC3; in contrast, treatment with LY294002 or Akti-X reversed the effect of CCL2 on LC3-II levels, suggesting that CCL2 signaling limits autophagy in these cells. Upon serum deprivation, the analysis of LC3 localization by immunofluorescence revealed a remarkable reduction in LC3 punctate after CCL2 stimulation. CCL2 treatment also resulted in a higher sustained mTORC1 activity as measured by an increase in phospho-p70S6 kinase (Thr389). Rapamycin, an inducer of autophagy, both down-regulated survivin and decreased PC3 cell viability in serum-deprived conditions. Treatment with CCL2, however, allowed cells to partially resist rapamycin-induced death, which correlated with survivin protein levels. In two stable transfectants expressing survivin-specific short hairpin RNA, generated from PC3, survivin protein levels controlled both cell viability and LC3 localization in response to CCL2 treatment. Altogether, these findings indicate that CCL2 protects prostate cancer PC3 cells from autophagic death via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/survivin pathway and reveal survivin as a critical molecule in this survival mechanism.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Urology, University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. rocach@umich.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18611860

Citation

Roca, Hernan, et al. "CCL2 Protects Prostate Cancer PC3 Cells From Autophagic Death Via Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT-dependent Survivin Up-regulation." The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 283, no. 36, 2008, pp. 25057-73.
Roca H, Varsos Z, Pienta KJ. CCL2 protects prostate cancer PC3 cells from autophagic death via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT-dependent survivin up-regulation. J Biol Chem. 2008;283(36):25057-73.
Roca, H., Varsos, Z., & Pienta, K. J. (2008). CCL2 protects prostate cancer PC3 cells from autophagic death via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT-dependent survivin up-regulation. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 283(36), 25057-73. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M801073200
Roca H, Varsos Z, Pienta KJ. CCL2 Protects Prostate Cancer PC3 Cells From Autophagic Death Via Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT-dependent Survivin Up-regulation. J Biol Chem. 2008 Sep 5;283(36):25057-73. PubMed PMID: 18611860.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - CCL2 protects prostate cancer PC3 cells from autophagic death via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT-dependent survivin up-regulation. AU - Roca,Hernan, AU - Varsos,Zachary, AU - Pienta,Kenneth J, Y1 - 2008/07/08/ PY - 2008/7/10/pubmed PY - 2008/10/22/medline PY - 2008/7/10/entrez SP - 25057 EP - 73 JF - The Journal of biological chemistry JO - J Biol Chem VL - 283 IS - 36 N2 - Resistance to cell death is a hallmark of cancer. Autophagy is a survival mechanism activated in response to nutrient deprivation; however, excessive autophagy will ultimately induce cell death in a nonapoptotic manner. The present study demonstrates that CCL2 protects prostate cancer PC3 cells from autophagic death, allowing prolonged survival in serum-free conditions. Upon serum starvation, CCL2 induced survivin up-regulation in PC3, DU 145, and C4-2B prostate cancer cells. Both cell survival and survivin expression were stunted in CCL2-stimulated PC3 cells when treated either with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 (2 microm) or the Akt-specific inhibitor-X (Akti-X; 2.5 microm). Furthermore, CCL2 significantly reduced light chain 3-II (LC3-II) in serum-starved PC3; in contrast, treatment with LY294002 or Akti-X reversed the effect of CCL2 on LC3-II levels, suggesting that CCL2 signaling limits autophagy in these cells. Upon serum deprivation, the analysis of LC3 localization by immunofluorescence revealed a remarkable reduction in LC3 punctate after CCL2 stimulation. CCL2 treatment also resulted in a higher sustained mTORC1 activity as measured by an increase in phospho-p70S6 kinase (Thr389). Rapamycin, an inducer of autophagy, both down-regulated survivin and decreased PC3 cell viability in serum-deprived conditions. Treatment with CCL2, however, allowed cells to partially resist rapamycin-induced death, which correlated with survivin protein levels. In two stable transfectants expressing survivin-specific short hairpin RNA, generated from PC3, survivin protein levels controlled both cell viability and LC3 localization in response to CCL2 treatment. Altogether, these findings indicate that CCL2 protects prostate cancer PC3 cells from autophagic death via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/survivin pathway and reveal survivin as a critical molecule in this survival mechanism. SN - 0021-9258 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18611860/CCL2_protects_prostate_cancer_PC3_cells_from_autophagic_death_via_phosphatidylinositol_3_kinase/AKT_dependent_survivin_up_regulation_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0021-9258(19)49249-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -