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The enigma of yellow fever in East Africa.
Rev Med Virol. 2008 Sep-Oct; 18(5):331-46.RM

Abstract

Despite a safe and effective vaccine, there are approximately 200,000 cases, including 30,000 deaths, due to yellow fever virus (YFV) each year, of which 90% are in Africa. The natural history of YFV has been well described, especially in West Africa, but in East Africa yellow fever (YF) remains characterised by unpredictable focal periodicity and a precarious potential for large epidemics. Recent outbreaks of YF in Kenya (1992-1993) and Sudan (2003 and 2005) are important because each of these outbreaks have involved the re-emergence of a YFV genotype (East Africa) that remained undetected for nearly 40 years and was previously unconfirmed in a clinically apparent outbreak. In addition, unlike West Africa and South America, YF has yet to emerge in urban areas of East Africa and be vectored by Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti. This is a significant public health concern in a region where the majority of the population remains unvaccinated. This review describes historical findings, highlights a number of disease indicators, and provides clarification regarding the natural history, recent emergence and future risk of YF in East Africa.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA. brellis@hawaii.eduNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18615782

Citation

Ellis, Brett R., and Alan D T. Barrett. "The Enigma of Yellow Fever in East Africa." Reviews in Medical Virology, vol. 18, no. 5, 2008, pp. 331-46.
Ellis BR, Barrett AD. The enigma of yellow fever in East Africa. Rev Med Virol. 2008;18(5):331-46.
Ellis, B. R., & Barrett, A. D. (2008). The enigma of yellow fever in East Africa. Reviews in Medical Virology, 18(5), 331-46. https://doi.org/10.1002/rmv.584
Ellis BR, Barrett AD. The Enigma of Yellow Fever in East Africa. Rev Med Virol. 2008 Sep-Oct;18(5):331-46. PubMed PMID: 18615782.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The enigma of yellow fever in East Africa. AU - Ellis,Brett R, AU - Barrett,Alan D T, PY - 2008/7/11/pubmed PY - 2008/10/16/medline PY - 2008/7/11/entrez SP - 331 EP - 46 JF - Reviews in medical virology JO - Rev Med Virol VL - 18 IS - 5 N2 - Despite a safe and effective vaccine, there are approximately 200,000 cases, including 30,000 deaths, due to yellow fever virus (YFV) each year, of which 90% are in Africa. The natural history of YFV has been well described, especially in West Africa, but in East Africa yellow fever (YF) remains characterised by unpredictable focal periodicity and a precarious potential for large epidemics. Recent outbreaks of YF in Kenya (1992-1993) and Sudan (2003 and 2005) are important because each of these outbreaks have involved the re-emergence of a YFV genotype (East Africa) that remained undetected for nearly 40 years and was previously unconfirmed in a clinically apparent outbreak. In addition, unlike West Africa and South America, YF has yet to emerge in urban areas of East Africa and be vectored by Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti. This is a significant public health concern in a region where the majority of the population remains unvaccinated. This review describes historical findings, highlights a number of disease indicators, and provides clarification regarding the natural history, recent emergence and future risk of YF in East Africa. SN - 1052-9276 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18615782/The_enigma_of_yellow_fever_in_East_Africa_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/rmv.584 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -