Comparative effects of propofol, landiolol, and nicardipine on hemodynamic and bispectral index responses to endotracheal intubation: a prospective, randomized, double-blinded study.J Clin Anesth. 2008 Jun; 20(4):257-62.JC
To examine the comparative effects of propofol, landiolol, and nicardipine on hemodynamic responses and bispectral index (BIS) changes to endotracheal intubation.
Operating room of a university-affiliated general hospital.
27 ASA physical status I and II patients who were scheduled to undergo elective general surgical, urological, or gynecological procedures with general anesthesia.
Prospective, randomized, double-blinded study.
Patients were divided into three groups as follows: Group 1 received propofol, 1 mg/kg; Group 2 received landiolol, 0.1 mg/kg; and Group 3 received nicardipine, 1 mg. After baseline measurements were recorded, anesthesia was induced with propofol, fentanyl, and vecuronium. Patients' lungs were ventilated with 100% oxygen for 120 seconds, at which time one of one of the study drugs was administered. Laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation were performed 4 minutes after anesthetic induction.
Cardiac index (CI) and stroke volume index (SVI) were monitored continuously. Bispectral index was also monitored continuously from 5 minutes after tracheal intubation.
Heart rate values in Group 3 increased 30 seconds after intubation; this increase lasted for 1 minute after intubation. Systolic blood pressure in all three groups decreased after induction of anesthesia and before tracheal intubation, and values returned closer to baseline values 30 seconds after intubation. In the propofol group, CI and SVI decreased after administration of additional propofol, lasting for 30 seconds after intubation. The BIS values rapidly decreased after induction of anesthesia, with no intergroup differences noted in BIS values (propofol group, 39+/-7; landiolol group, 44+/-14; nicardipine group, 41+/-9). However, BIS was significantly lower in the propofol group than in the other two groups from 30 seconds to 5 minutes after intubation.
Landiolol, 0.1 mg/kg, before intubation provides effective hemodynamic stability in the postintubation period.