Further insight into thermally and pH-induced generation of acrylamide from glucose/asparagine model systems.J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Aug 13; 56(15):6069-74.JA
On the basis of numerous studies on the mechanism of formation of acrylamide (AA) from asparagine and reducing sugars, the decarboxylated Schiff base [ N-(d-glucos-1-yl)-3'-aminopropionamide] and its corresponding Amadori product [ N-(1-deoxy- d-fructos-1-yl)-3'-aminopropionamide) are considered to be possible direct precursors in addition to 3-aminopropionamide (AP). Furthermore, the mechanism of decarboxylation of the initially formed N-(d-glucos-1-yl)asparagine to generate the above-mentioned precursors also remains to be confirmed. To identify the relative importance of AA precursors, the decarboxylated Amadori product (AP ARP) and the corresponding Schiff base were synthesized and their relative abilities to generate AA under dry and wet heating conditions were studied. Under both conditions, the N-(d-glucos-1-yl)-3'-aminopropionamide had the highest intrinsic ability to be converted into AA. In the dry model system, the increase was almost 4-fold higher than the corresponding AP ARP or AP; however, in the wet system, the increase was 2-fold higher relative to AP ARP but >20-fold higher relative to AP. In addition, to gain further insight into the decarboxylation step, the amino acid/sugar reactions were analyzed by FTIR to monitor the formation of the previously proposed 5-oxazolidinone intermediate known to exhibit a peak in the range of 1770-1810 cm (-1). Spectroscopic studies clearly indicated the formation of an intense peak in the indicated range, the precise wavelength being dependent on the amino acid and the sugar used. The identity of the peak was verified by observing a 40 cm (-1) shift when [(13)C-1]-labeled amino acid was used.