[Tungiasis and myiasis].Hautarzt. 2008 Aug; 59(8):615-21.H
Tungiasis (sand flea disease) and myiasis are ectoparasitoses, in which the infectious agent resides temporarily in the skin (myiasis) or dies and is eventually eliminated (tungiasis). Both diseases are zoonoses. Whereas in myiasis humans are only an accidental host, in tungiasis the prevalence in humans is similar to that of their domestic animals. In travellers returning from the tropics tungiasis and myiasis are not rare, however they are frequently misdiagnosed. The diagnosis of both infestations is made clinically, and laboratory investigations are not helpful. In tungiasis the clinical picture depends on the stage of the disease. A heavy local inflammation and bacterial superinfection are frequent. Therapy consists in the complete elimination of the parasite. The repellent Zanzarin effectively protects against sand fleas.