Removal of chromium from aqueous solution by using oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes.J Hazard Mater. 2009 Mar 15; 162(2-3):1542-50.JH
The batch removal of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) from aqueous solution by using oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was studied under ambient conditions. The effect of pH, initial concentration of Cr(VI), MWCNT content, contact time and ionic strength on the removal of Cr(VI) was also investigated. The removal was favored at low pH with maximum removal at pH <2. The adsorption kinetics was modeled by first-order reversible kinetics, pseudo-first-order kinetics, pseudo-second-order kinetics, and intraparticle diffusion models, respectively. The rate constants for all these kinetic models were calculated, and the results indicate that pseudo-second-order kinetics model was well suitable to model the kinetic adsorption of Cr(VI). The removal of chromium mainly depends on the occurrence of redox reaction of adsorbed Cr(VI) on the surface of oxidized MWCNTs to the formation of Cr(III), and subsequent the sorption of Cr(III) on MWCNTs appears as the leading mechanism for chromium uptake to MWCNTs. The presence of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) on oxidized MWCNTs was confirmed by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis. The application of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms are applied to fit the adsorption data of Cr(VI). Equilibrium data were well described by the typical Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Overall, the study demonstrated that MWCNTs can effectively remove Cr(VI) from aqueous solution under a wide range of experimental conditions, without significant Cr(III) release.