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Evaluative conditioning of fear and disgust in blood-injection-injury phobia: specificity and impact of individual differences in disgust sensitivity.
J Anxiety Disord. 2009 Mar; 23(2):153-9.JA

Abstract

The present study examines whether the repeated pairing of neutral facial expressions with phobic-relevant stimuli differentially influences evaluative ratings of fear and disgust between analogue blood-injection-injury (BII) phobic (n=40) and non-phobic (n=40) participants. Consistent with prior research, BII phobics reported greater disgust sensitivity than non-phobic participants even after controlling for between group differences in anxiety symptoms. Results from the evaluative conditioning experiment indicated that pre- to posttest increases in fear ratings were only marginally greater for phobic compared to non-phobic participants. However, increases in disgust from pre- to posttest were greater for phobic compared to non-phobic participants and greater for neutral expressions that were paired with threat-relevant stimuli compared to stimuli not paired with threat-relevant stimuli. Subsequent analysis also indicated that pre- to posttest increases in disgust ratings of neutral expressions that were paired with threat-relevant stimuli was moderated by disgust sensitivity levels among phobic and non-phobic participants. Heightened fear and disgust ratings were subsequently reduced by an extinction procedure. Implications of present findings in understanding the role of fear and disgust in BII phobia are discussed.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37203, United States. olubunmi.o.olatunji@vanderbilt.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Evaluation Study
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18650059

Citation

Olatunji, Bunmi O., et al. "Evaluative Conditioning of Fear and Disgust in Blood-injection-injury Phobia: Specificity and Impact of Individual Differences in Disgust Sensitivity." Journal of Anxiety Disorders, vol. 23, no. 2, 2009, pp. 153-9.
Olatunji BO, Lohr JM, Smits JA, et al. Evaluative conditioning of fear and disgust in blood-injection-injury phobia: specificity and impact of individual differences in disgust sensitivity. J Anxiety Disord. 2009;23(2):153-9.
Olatunji, B. O., Lohr, J. M., Smits, J. A., Sawchuk, C. N., & Patten, K. (2009). Evaluative conditioning of fear and disgust in blood-injection-injury phobia: specificity and impact of individual differences in disgust sensitivity. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23(2), 153-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2008.06.002
Olatunji BO, et al. Evaluative Conditioning of Fear and Disgust in Blood-injection-injury Phobia: Specificity and Impact of Individual Differences in Disgust Sensitivity. J Anxiety Disord. 2009;23(2):153-9. PubMed PMID: 18650059.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Evaluative conditioning of fear and disgust in blood-injection-injury phobia: specificity and impact of individual differences in disgust sensitivity. AU - Olatunji,Bunmi O, AU - Lohr,Jeffrey M, AU - Smits,Jasper A J, AU - Sawchuk,Craig N, AU - Patten,Kelly, Y1 - 2008/06/17/ PY - 2008/02/01/received PY - 2008/06/06/revised PY - 2008/06/07/accepted PY - 2008/7/25/pubmed PY - 2009/8/7/medline PY - 2008/7/25/entrez SP - 153 EP - 9 JF - Journal of anxiety disorders JO - J Anxiety Disord VL - 23 IS - 2 N2 - The present study examines whether the repeated pairing of neutral facial expressions with phobic-relevant stimuli differentially influences evaluative ratings of fear and disgust between analogue blood-injection-injury (BII) phobic (n=40) and non-phobic (n=40) participants. Consistent with prior research, BII phobics reported greater disgust sensitivity than non-phobic participants even after controlling for between group differences in anxiety symptoms. Results from the evaluative conditioning experiment indicated that pre- to posttest increases in fear ratings were only marginally greater for phobic compared to non-phobic participants. However, increases in disgust from pre- to posttest were greater for phobic compared to non-phobic participants and greater for neutral expressions that were paired with threat-relevant stimuli compared to stimuli not paired with threat-relevant stimuli. Subsequent analysis also indicated that pre- to posttest increases in disgust ratings of neutral expressions that were paired with threat-relevant stimuli was moderated by disgust sensitivity levels among phobic and non-phobic participants. Heightened fear and disgust ratings were subsequently reduced by an extinction procedure. Implications of present findings in understanding the role of fear and disgust in BII phobia are discussed. SN - 1873-7897 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18650059/Evaluative_conditioning_of_fear_and_disgust_in_blood_injection_injury_phobia:_specificity_and_impact_of_individual_differences_in_disgust_sensitivity_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0887-6185(08)00116-3 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -