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Imported typhoid fever in Switzerland, 1993 to 2004.
J Travel Med. 2008 Jul-Aug; 15(4):248-51.JT

Abstract

BACKGROUND

In industrialized countries, typhoid fever occurs mainly in returned travelers. To determine the need for preventive strategies, eg, for vaccination, continuous monitoring is needed to assess where the risk for travelers is highest.

METHODS

To investigate where the risk for travelers to acquire typhoid fever is highest, 208 patients with typhoid fever and recent travel were matched with travelers' statistics collected by the Swiss Federal Office of Statistics.

RESULTS

At the beginning of the study period, up to 30 infections with Salmonella typhi were recorded per year in Switzerland. Since 2001, less than 15 confirmed cases per year occurred. A majority of the 208 (88.5%) typhoid cases were associated with recent travel. Countries with highest risk were Pakistan (24 per 100,000), Cambodia (20 per 100,000), Nepal (14 per 100,000), India (12 per 100,000), and Sri Lanka (9 per 100,000).

CONCLUSIONS

We found that over a 12-year period (1993-2004), the travel-associated risk of typhoid fever is highest for destinations in the Indian subcontinent. All other regions showed a decline, most markedly in southern Europe. Our results suggest that typhoid fever vaccination should be recommended for all travelers to countries in South Asia. Otherwise, vaccination of tourists to frequently visited low- and intermediate-risk areas is not necessary, unless there are behavioral risk factors.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Epidemiology and Prevention of Communicable Diseases, WHO Collaborating Centre for Travellers' Health, Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Zurich Travel Clinic, CH-8001 Zurich, Switzerland. andreas.keller@access.uzh.chNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18666925

Citation

Keller, Andreas, et al. "Imported Typhoid Fever in Switzerland, 1993 to 2004." Journal of Travel Medicine, vol. 15, no. 4, 2008, pp. 248-51.
Keller A, Frey M, Schmid H, et al. Imported typhoid fever in Switzerland, 1993 to 2004. J Travel Med. 2008;15(4):248-51.
Keller, A., Frey, M., Schmid, H., Steffen, R., Walker, T., & Schlagenhauf, P. (2008). Imported typhoid fever in Switzerland, 1993 to 2004. Journal of Travel Medicine, 15(4), 248-51. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1708-8305.2008.00216.x
Keller A, et al. Imported Typhoid Fever in Switzerland, 1993 to 2004. J Travel Med. 2008 Jul-Aug;15(4):248-51. PubMed PMID: 18666925.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Imported typhoid fever in Switzerland, 1993 to 2004. AU - Keller,Andreas, AU - Frey,Markus, AU - Schmid,Hans, AU - Steffen,Robert, AU - Walker,Thomas, AU - Schlagenhauf,Patricia, PY - 2008/8/1/pubmed PY - 2008/9/16/medline PY - 2008/8/1/entrez SP - 248 EP - 51 JF - Journal of travel medicine JO - J Travel Med VL - 15 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND: In industrialized countries, typhoid fever occurs mainly in returned travelers. To determine the need for preventive strategies, eg, for vaccination, continuous monitoring is needed to assess where the risk for travelers is highest. METHODS: To investigate where the risk for travelers to acquire typhoid fever is highest, 208 patients with typhoid fever and recent travel were matched with travelers' statistics collected by the Swiss Federal Office of Statistics. RESULTS: At the beginning of the study period, up to 30 infections with Salmonella typhi were recorded per year in Switzerland. Since 2001, less than 15 confirmed cases per year occurred. A majority of the 208 (88.5%) typhoid cases were associated with recent travel. Countries with highest risk were Pakistan (24 per 100,000), Cambodia (20 per 100,000), Nepal (14 per 100,000), India (12 per 100,000), and Sri Lanka (9 per 100,000). CONCLUSIONS: We found that over a 12-year period (1993-2004), the travel-associated risk of typhoid fever is highest for destinations in the Indian subcontinent. All other regions showed a decline, most markedly in southern Europe. Our results suggest that typhoid fever vaccination should be recommended for all travelers to countries in South Asia. Otherwise, vaccination of tourists to frequently visited low- and intermediate-risk areas is not necessary, unless there are behavioral risk factors. SN - 1708-8305 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18666925/Imported_typhoid_fever_in_Switzerland_1993_to_2004_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jtm/article-lookup/doi/10.1111/j.1708-8305.2008.00216.x DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -