FIFA World Cup 2006 in Germany: enhanced surveillance improved timeliness and detection.Epidemiol Infect. 2009 Apr; 137(4):597-605.EI
Enhanced surveillance for infectious disease events, with accelerated routine reporting and daily supplementary reports, was undertaken during the 2006 FIFA World Cup in Germany. We evaluated the surveillance outputs, reporting intervals and detection of World Cup-relevant events for the enhanced system. Outbreak numbers for measles, Norovirus and Campylobacter were significantly higher than in previous years, but all increases were explained by prior trends. The median interval (disease onset to receipt at national centre) fell from 17 days in 2005 to 12 days in 2006. Detection of World Cup-relevant events was 44% (8/18) in the routine system and 77% (14/18) in supplementary reports. We did not identify any significant effect on infectious disease epidemiology relating to the FIFA 2006 World Cup. Daily reporting improved timeliness, and supplementary reporting improved relevant event detection. Enhancing existing systems, without the addition of syndromic surveillance, can be an effective approach to mass-event surveillance.