Carbohydrate utilization and the lager yeast transcriptome during brewery fermentation.Yeast. 2008 Aug; 25(8):549-62.Y
The fermentable carbohydrate composition of wort and the manner in which it is utilized by yeast during brewery fermentation have a direct influence on fermentation efficiency and quality of the final product. In this study the response of a brewing yeast strain to changes in wort fermentable carbohydrate concentration and composition during full-scale (3275 hl) brewery fermentation was investigated by measuring transcriptome changes with the aid of oligonucleotide-based DNA arrays. Up to 74% of the detectable genes showed a significant (p</=0.01) differential expression pattern during fermentation and the majority of these genes showed transient or prolonged peaks in expression following the exhaustion of the monosaccharides from the wort. Transcriptional activity of many genes was consistent with their known responses to glucose de/repression under laboratory conditions, despite the presence of di- and trisaccharide sugars in the wort. In a number of cases the transcriptional response of genes was not consistent with their known responses to glucose, suggesting a degree of complexity during brewery fermentation which cannot be replicated in small-scale wort fermentations or in laboratory experiments involving defined media.