A placebo-controlled 3-year study of a calcium blocker on visual field and ocular circulation in glaucoma with low-normal pressure.Ophthalmology 2008; 115(11):2049-57O
To study the 3-year effect of oral nilvadipine, a calcium antagonist, on visual field performance and ocular circulation in open-angle glaucoma (OAG) with low-normal intraocular pressure (IOP).
A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked, single-center trial.
Patients with OAG who were younger than 65 years and had untreated IOP consistently of 16 mmHg or less.
Oral nilvadipine (2 mg twice daily) or placebo was assigned randomly to patients fulfilling the criteria by the minimization method of balancing the groups according to age, refraction, and the mean deviation (MD) value (Humphrey Perimeter 30-2 SITA Standard Program; Humphrey Instruments, Inc., San Leandro, CA) of the eye with less negative MD. No topical ocular hypotensive drugs were prescribed. Visual field testing was performed every 3 months; fundus examination and IOP, blood pressure, and pulse rate measurements were carried out every month; and quantitative indexes of circulation in the optic disc rim (NB(ONH)) and choroid in the foveal area (NB(fovea)) were determined using the laser speckle method at 0, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
The time courses of MD, NB(ONH), and NB(fovea) in the eye with less negative MD.
Thirty-three patients were enrolled; 17 were assigned to nilvadipine and 16 were assigned to placebo; 13 in each group completed the study. No significant intergroup difference was seen in age, refraction, or baseline values of any of the parameters. During the 3-year period, the IOP averaged 12.6 mmHg in the nilvadipine group and 12.8 mmHg in the placebo group (P>0.1), and no significant change from baseline or intergroup difference was seen in blood pressure or pulse rate. The estimated slope of change in the MD was less negative in the nilvadipine than in the placebo group (-0.01 vs. -0.27 decibels/year; P = 0.040). The NB(ONH) and NB(fovea) values remained increased compared with baseline for the study period by approximately 30% to 40% only in the nilvadipine group, and the intergroup difference was significant (P = 0.003 for NB(ONH) and P = 0.007 for NB(fovea)).
Nilvadipine (2 mg twice daily) slightly slowed the visual field progression and maintained the optic disc rim, and the posterior choroidal circulation increased over 3 years in patients with OAG with low-normal IOP.