Oral contraceptives and neoplasia of the uterine corpus.Contraception. 1991 Jun; 43(6):557-79.C
Effects of oral contraception on neoplasia of the uterine corpus are reviewed on the basis of epidemiologic studies reported to date. A duration-related protective effect against endometrial cancer occurs from use of combined oral contraceptives, those in which each active pill contains both estrogen and progestogen. The risk before age 60 years is reduced by about 38% with two years of use; use of combined OCs for 4, 8, and 12 years, respectively, confers an estimated 51%, 64%, and 70% reduction in endometrial cancer risk. The protective effect appears not to be diminished by discontinued use, even 15 or more years after stopping. Whether protection continues throughout the entire postmenopausal period, even in the presence of long-term hormone replacement therapy, remains to be seen. Use of combined OCs may protect against uterine leiomyomas ("fibroids"), but the evidence is not conclusive. The few findings about effects of oral contraception on the risk of adenomatous hyperplasia are of uncertain validity. Only one study, with few patients, has considered oral contraception in relation to uterine sarcomas.