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Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder: controversies of diagnosis and safety of pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatment.

Abstract

Attention-Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a condition that presents with a variety of behavioral and social problems. The objective of this review was to examine the evidence concerning the controversies surrounding the diagnosis of ADHD and the safety of pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatment. A MEDLINE search was conducted using MeSH terms ADHD, children, treatments or behavioral therapy. The search was limited to January 1990 to present, randomized clinical trials, retrospective studies and English. Fifty-seven articles were selected for review. Controversies exist regarding the diagnosis: variations exist by gender, across countries and by method of diagnosis. These issues are currently unresolved. The interventions with the most data concerning their safety and efficacy in children were stimulant medications. Children with ADHD who took stimulant medications showed the greatest improvement in behavior when compared to other interventions such as behavior therapy or family counseling. Limitations of behavior therapy included that it is often a difficult process to continue on an ongoing basis and only a portion of the therapy stimulated the child's natural reward system. However, a combination of both stimulant medication and behavior therapy demonstrated synergistic efficacy. Care must be taken to insure that issues of gender and race, as well as the adverse effects of treatment options, are adequately taken into account by the treating clinician.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    College of Pharmacy, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267-0004, USA.

    Source

    Current drug safety 2:1 2007 Jan pg 33-42

    MeSH

    Antidepressive Agents
    Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
    Behavior Therapy
    Biofeedback, Psychology
    Central Nervous System Stimulants
    Child
    Complementary Therapies
    Humans
    Safety
    Yoga

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Meta-Analysis
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    18690948

    Citation

    Benner-Davis, Shannon, and Pamela C. Heaton. "Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder: Controversies of Diagnosis and Safety of Pharmacological and Nonpharmacological Treatment." Current Drug Safety, vol. 2, no. 1, 2007, pp. 33-42.
    Benner-Davis S, Heaton PC. Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder: controversies of diagnosis and safety of pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatment. Curr Drug Saf. 2007;2(1):33-42.
    Benner-Davis, S., & Heaton, P. C. (2007). Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder: controversies of diagnosis and safety of pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatment. Current Drug Safety, 2(1), pp. 33-42.
    Benner-Davis S, Heaton PC. Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder: Controversies of Diagnosis and Safety of Pharmacological and Nonpharmacological Treatment. Curr Drug Saf. 2007;2(1):33-42. PubMed PMID: 18690948.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder: controversies of diagnosis and safety of pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatment. AU - Benner-Davis,Shannon, AU - Heaton,Pamela C, PY - 2008/8/12/pubmed PY - 2008/9/4/medline PY - 2008/8/12/entrez SP - 33 EP - 42 JF - Current drug safety JO - Curr Drug Saf VL - 2 IS - 1 N2 - Attention-Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a condition that presents with a variety of behavioral and social problems. The objective of this review was to examine the evidence concerning the controversies surrounding the diagnosis of ADHD and the safety of pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatment. A MEDLINE search was conducted using MeSH terms ADHD, children, treatments or behavioral therapy. The search was limited to January 1990 to present, randomized clinical trials, retrospective studies and English. Fifty-seven articles were selected for review. Controversies exist regarding the diagnosis: variations exist by gender, across countries and by method of diagnosis. These issues are currently unresolved. The interventions with the most data concerning their safety and efficacy in children were stimulant medications. Children with ADHD who took stimulant medications showed the greatest improvement in behavior when compared to other interventions such as behavior therapy or family counseling. Limitations of behavior therapy included that it is often a difficult process to continue on an ongoing basis and only a portion of the therapy stimulated the child's natural reward system. However, a combination of both stimulant medication and behavior therapy demonstrated synergistic efficacy. Care must be taken to insure that issues of gender and race, as well as the adverse effects of treatment options, are adequately taken into account by the treating clinician. SN - 1574-8863 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18690948/Attention_deficit_and_hyperactivity_disorder:_controversies_of_diagnosis_and_safety_of_pharmacological_and_nonpharmacological_treatment_ L2 - http://www.eurekaselect.com/58370/article DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -