Biodiversity of the microbial community in a Spanish farmhouse cheese as revealed by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.Int J Food Microbiol 2008; 127(3):200-8IJ
The microbial diversity within Alberquilla cheese, made from a spontaneously fermented mixture of raw goats' and sheep's milk in the Alpujarra mountains (Granada, south-east Spain), has been studied by the classical culturing method and also by molecular analysis of community DNA. A collection of 206 isolates was obtained from the cheese on different selective/differential media, which were then re-grouped to 52 after randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR analyses. Isolates on Man-Rogosa and Sharpe-agar (MRS), M17-glucose agar and Kenner Fecal (KF)-agar medium were identified by specific PCR or 16S rRNA gene sequencing and belonged mainly to the lactic-acid bacteria group. The predominant genus was Lactobacillus, which accounted for more than 50% of the isolates, the most abundant species being Lactobacillus paracasei, followed by considerably less quantities of Lb. plantarum and Lb. brevis. Other lactic-acid bacteria identified were Pediococcus urinaequi, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, Leuc. mesenteroides, Lactococcus lactis and even the enterococci Enterococcus faecium and E. devriesei. Cluster analyses of RAPD-PCR patterns revealed a high degree of diversity among the lactobacilli. The Gram-negative bacterial strains belonged mainly to Hafnia alvei species. The microbes occurring in Alberquilla cheese were also studied by PCR temporal temperature-gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) of the 16S rRNA V3 region and partial 16S rRNA sequencing of the TTGE bands. The results showed a major presence of lactic-acid bacteria closely related to Lc. lactis, Lb. paracasei, Lb. plantarum, Lb. brevis, Lb. acidophilus and Enterococcus sp. The non-lactic-acid bacterium detected was identified as Escherichia coli. All the Enterococcus strains showed great susceptibility to the most clinically relevant antibiotics, harbouring only the virulence gene efaAfm. On the basis of their antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes we chose two strains of Ln. mesenteroides that produced mesenterocin B105 and mesenterocin Y105, as revealed by PCR techniques.