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Free radicals and low-level photon emission in human pathogenesis: state of the art.
Indian J Exp Biol. 2008 May; 46(5):273-309.IJ

Abstract

Convincing evidence supports a role for oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases. The model includes the formation of radical oxygen species (ROS) and the misassembly and aggregation of proteins when three tiers of cellular defence are insufficient: (a) direct antioxidative systems, (b) molecular damage repairing systems, and (c) compensatory chaperone synthesis. The aim of the present overview is to introduce (a) the basics of free radical and antioxidant metabolism, (b) the role of the protein quality control system in protecting cells from free radical damage and its relation to chronic diseases, (c) the basics of the ultraweak luminescence as marker of the oxidant status of biological systems, and (d) the research in human photon emission as a non-invasive marker of oxidant status in relation to chronic diseases. In considering the role of free radicals in disease, both their generation and their control by the antioxidant system are part of the story. Excessive free radical production leads to the production of heat shock proteins and chaperone proteins as a second line of protection against damage. Chaperones at the molecular level facilitate stress regulation vis-à-vis protein quali y control mechanisms. The manifestation of misfolded proteins and aggregates is a hallmark of a range of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amylotrophic lateral sclerosis, polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases, diabetes and many others. Each of these disorders exhibits aging-dependent onset and a progressive, usually fatal clinical course. The second part reviews the current status of human photon emission techniques and protocols for recording the human oxidative status. Sensitive photomultiplier tubes may provide a tool for non-invasive and continuous monitoring of oxidative metabolism. In that respect, recording ultraweak luminescence has been favored compared to other indirect assays. Several biological models have been used to illustrate the technique in cell cultures and organs in vivo. This initiated practical applications addressing specific human pathological issues. Systematic studies on human emission have presented information on: (a) procedures for reliable measurements, and spectral analysis, (b) anatomic intensity of emission and left-right symmetries, (c) biological rhythms in emission, (d) physical and psychological influences on emission, (e) novel physical characteristics of emission, and (f) the identification of ultraweak photon emission with the staging of ROS-related damage and disease. It is concluded that both patterns and physical properties of ultraweak photon emission hold considerable promise as measure for the oxidative status.

Authors+Show Affiliations

International Institute of Biophysics, Neuss, Germany. roeland_van_wijk@meluna.nlNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18697612

Citation

Van Wijk, Roeland, et al. "Free Radicals and Low-level Photon Emission in Human Pathogenesis: State of the Art." Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 46, no. 5, 2008, pp. 273-309.
Van Wijk R, Van Wijk EP, Wiegant FA, et al. Free radicals and low-level photon emission in human pathogenesis: state of the art. Indian J Exp Biol. 2008;46(5):273-309.
Van Wijk, R., Van Wijk, E. P., Wiegant, F. A., & Ives, J. (2008). Free radicals and low-level photon emission in human pathogenesis: state of the art. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 46(5), 273-309.
Van Wijk R, et al. Free Radicals and Low-level Photon Emission in Human Pathogenesis: State of the Art. Indian J Exp Biol. 2008;46(5):273-309. PubMed PMID: 18697612.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Free radicals and low-level photon emission in human pathogenesis: state of the art. AU - Van Wijk,Roeland, AU - Van Wijk,Eduard P A, AU - Wiegant,Fred A C, AU - Ives,John, PY - 2008/8/14/pubmed PY - 2008/9/4/medline PY - 2008/8/14/entrez SP - 273 EP - 309 JF - Indian journal of experimental biology JO - Indian J. Exp. Biol. VL - 46 IS - 5 N2 - Convincing evidence supports a role for oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases. The model includes the formation of radical oxygen species (ROS) and the misassembly and aggregation of proteins when three tiers of cellular defence are insufficient: (a) direct antioxidative systems, (b) molecular damage repairing systems, and (c) compensatory chaperone synthesis. The aim of the present overview is to introduce (a) the basics of free radical and antioxidant metabolism, (b) the role of the protein quality control system in protecting cells from free radical damage and its relation to chronic diseases, (c) the basics of the ultraweak luminescence as marker of the oxidant status of biological systems, and (d) the research in human photon emission as a non-invasive marker of oxidant status in relation to chronic diseases. In considering the role of free radicals in disease, both their generation and their control by the antioxidant system are part of the story. Excessive free radical production leads to the production of heat shock proteins and chaperone proteins as a second line of protection against damage. Chaperones at the molecular level facilitate stress regulation vis-à-vis protein quali y control mechanisms. The manifestation of misfolded proteins and aggregates is a hallmark of a range of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amylotrophic lateral sclerosis, polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases, diabetes and many others. Each of these disorders exhibits aging-dependent onset and a progressive, usually fatal clinical course. The second part reviews the current status of human photon emission techniques and protocols for recording the human oxidative status. Sensitive photomultiplier tubes may provide a tool for non-invasive and continuous monitoring of oxidative metabolism. In that respect, recording ultraweak luminescence has been favored compared to other indirect assays. Several biological models have been used to illustrate the technique in cell cultures and organs in vivo. This initiated practical applications addressing specific human pathological issues. Systematic studies on human emission have presented information on: (a) procedures for reliable measurements, and spectral analysis, (b) anatomic intensity of emission and left-right symmetries, (c) biological rhythms in emission, (d) physical and psychological influences on emission, (e) novel physical characteristics of emission, and (f) the identification of ultraweak photon emission with the staging of ROS-related damage and disease. It is concluded that both patterns and physical properties of ultraweak photon emission hold considerable promise as measure for the oxidative status. SN - 0019-5189 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18697612/Free_radicals_and_low_level_photon_emission_in_human_pathogenesis:_state_of_the_art_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -