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Causes of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency.
Food Nutr Bull. 2008 Jun; 29(2 Suppl):S20-34; discussion S35-7.FN

Abstract

This review describes current knowledge of the main causes of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. The most common explanations for poor vitamin B12 status are a low dietary intake of the vitamin (i.e., a low intake of animal-source foods) and malabsorption. Although it has long been known that strict vegetarians (vegans) are at risk for vitamin B12 deficiency, evidence now indicates that low intakes of animal-source foods, such as occur in some lacto-ovo vegetarians and many less-industrialized countries, cause vitamin B12 depletion. Malabsorption of the vitamin is most commonly observed as food-bound cobalamin malabsorption due to gastric atrophy in the elderly, and probably as a result of Helicobacter pylori infection. There is growing evidence that gene polymorphisms in transcobalamins affect plasma vitamin B12 concentrations. The primary cause of folate deficiency is low intake of sources rich in the vitamin, such as legumes and green leafy vegetables, and the consumption of these foods may explain why folate status can be adequate in relatively poor populations. Other situations in which the risk of folate deficiency increases include lactation and alcoholism.

Authors+Show Affiliations

USDA, ARS Western Human Nutrition Research Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA. lindsay.allen@ars.usda.gov

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18709879

Citation

Allen, Lindsay H.. "Causes of Vitamin B12 and Folate Deficiency." Food and Nutrition Bulletin, vol. 29, no. 2 Suppl, 2008, pp. S20-34; discussion S35-7.
Allen LH. Causes of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. Food Nutr Bull. 2008;29(2 Suppl):S20-34; discussion S35-7.
Allen, L. H. (2008). Causes of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 29(2 Suppl), S20-34; discussion S35-7.
Allen LH. Causes of Vitamin B12 and Folate Deficiency. Food Nutr Bull. 2008;29(2 Suppl):S20-34; discussion S35-7. PubMed PMID: 18709879.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Causes of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. A1 - Allen,Lindsay H, PY - 2008/8/20/pubmed PY - 2008/11/11/medline PY - 2008/8/20/entrez SP - S20-34; discussion S35-7 JF - Food and nutrition bulletin JO - Food Nutr Bull VL - 29 IS - 2 Suppl N2 - This review describes current knowledge of the main causes of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. The most common explanations for poor vitamin B12 status are a low dietary intake of the vitamin (i.e., a low intake of animal-source foods) and malabsorption. Although it has long been known that strict vegetarians (vegans) are at risk for vitamin B12 deficiency, evidence now indicates that low intakes of animal-source foods, such as occur in some lacto-ovo vegetarians and many less-industrialized countries, cause vitamin B12 depletion. Malabsorption of the vitamin is most commonly observed as food-bound cobalamin malabsorption due to gastric atrophy in the elderly, and probably as a result of Helicobacter pylori infection. There is growing evidence that gene polymorphisms in transcobalamins affect plasma vitamin B12 concentrations. The primary cause of folate deficiency is low intake of sources rich in the vitamin, such as legumes and green leafy vegetables, and the consumption of these foods may explain why folate status can be adequate in relatively poor populations. Other situations in which the risk of folate deficiency increases include lactation and alcoholism. SN - 0379-5721 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18709879/Causes_of_vitamin_B12_and_folate_deficiency_ L2 - https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/15648265080292S105?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -