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High dietary omega-6 fatty acids contribute to reduced docosahexaenoic acid in the developing brain and inhibit secondary neurite growth.
Brain Res. 2008 Oct 27; 1237:136-45.BR

Abstract

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6omega-3) is a major polyunsaturated fatty acid in the brain and is required in large amounts during development. Low levels of DHA in the brain are associated with functional deficits. The omega-3 fatty acids are essential nutrients and their metabolism and incorporation in developing brain depends on the composition of dietary fat. We assessed the importance of the intake of the omega-3 fatty acid, 18:3omega-3 and the balance with the omega-6 fatty acid, 18:2omega-6, and the effects of dietary arachidonic acid (20:4omega-6) and DHA in milk diets using the piglet as a model of early infant nutrition. Piglets were fed (% energy) 1.2% 18:2omega-6 and 0.05% 18:3omega-3 (deficient), 10.7% 18:2omega-6 and 1.1% 18:3omega-3 (contemporary), 1.2% 18:2omega-6 and 1.1% 18:3omega-3 (evolutionary), or the contemporary diet with 0.3% 20:4omega-6 and 0.3% DHA (supplemented) from birth to 30 days of age. Our results show that a contemporary diet, high in 18:2omega-6 compromises DHA accretion and leads to increased 22:4omega-6 and 22:5omega-6 in the brain. However, an evolutionary diet, low in 18:2omega-6, supports high brain DHA. DHA supplementation effectively increased DHA, but not the intermediate omega-3 fatty acids, 20:5omega-3 and 22:5omega-3. Using primary cultures of cortical neurons, we show that 22:5omega-6 is efficiently acylated and preferentially taken up over DHA. However, DHA, but not 22:5omega-6 supports growth of secondary neurites. Our results suggest the need to consider whether current high dietary omega-6 fatty acid intakes compromise brain DHA accretion and contribute to poor neurodevelopment.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Nutrition Research Program, Child and Family Research Institute, Department of Paediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18710653

Citation

Novak, Elizabeth M., et al. "High Dietary Omega-6 Fatty Acids Contribute to Reduced Docosahexaenoic Acid in the Developing Brain and Inhibit Secondary Neurite Growth." Brain Research, vol. 1237, 2008, pp. 136-45.
Novak EM, Dyer RA, Innis SM. High dietary omega-6 fatty acids contribute to reduced docosahexaenoic acid in the developing brain and inhibit secondary neurite growth. Brain Res. 2008;1237:136-45.
Novak, E. M., Dyer, R. A., & Innis, S. M. (2008). High dietary omega-6 fatty acids contribute to reduced docosahexaenoic acid in the developing brain and inhibit secondary neurite growth. Brain Research, 1237, 136-45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2008.07.107
Novak EM, Dyer RA, Innis SM. High Dietary Omega-6 Fatty Acids Contribute to Reduced Docosahexaenoic Acid in the Developing Brain and Inhibit Secondary Neurite Growth. Brain Res. 2008 Oct 27;1237:136-45. PubMed PMID: 18710653.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - High dietary omega-6 fatty acids contribute to reduced docosahexaenoic acid in the developing brain and inhibit secondary neurite growth. AU - Novak,Elizabeth M, AU - Dyer,Roger A, AU - Innis,Sheila M, Y1 - 2008/08/05/ PY - 2008/06/30/received PY - 2008/07/24/revised PY - 2008/07/26/accepted PY - 2008/8/20/pubmed PY - 2009/4/10/medline PY - 2008/8/20/entrez SP - 136 EP - 45 JF - Brain research JO - Brain Res. VL - 1237 N2 - Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6omega-3) is a major polyunsaturated fatty acid in the brain and is required in large amounts during development. Low levels of DHA in the brain are associated with functional deficits. The omega-3 fatty acids are essential nutrients and their metabolism and incorporation in developing brain depends on the composition of dietary fat. We assessed the importance of the intake of the omega-3 fatty acid, 18:3omega-3 and the balance with the omega-6 fatty acid, 18:2omega-6, and the effects of dietary arachidonic acid (20:4omega-6) and DHA in milk diets using the piglet as a model of early infant nutrition. Piglets were fed (% energy) 1.2% 18:2omega-6 and 0.05% 18:3omega-3 (deficient), 10.7% 18:2omega-6 and 1.1% 18:3omega-3 (contemporary), 1.2% 18:2omega-6 and 1.1% 18:3omega-3 (evolutionary), or the contemporary diet with 0.3% 20:4omega-6 and 0.3% DHA (supplemented) from birth to 30 days of age. Our results show that a contemporary diet, high in 18:2omega-6 compromises DHA accretion and leads to increased 22:4omega-6 and 22:5omega-6 in the brain. However, an evolutionary diet, low in 18:2omega-6, supports high brain DHA. DHA supplementation effectively increased DHA, but not the intermediate omega-3 fatty acids, 20:5omega-3 and 22:5omega-3. Using primary cultures of cortical neurons, we show that 22:5omega-6 is efficiently acylated and preferentially taken up over DHA. However, DHA, but not 22:5omega-6 supports growth of secondary neurites. Our results suggest the need to consider whether current high dietary omega-6 fatty acid intakes compromise brain DHA accretion and contribute to poor neurodevelopment. SN - 0006-8993 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18710653/High_dietary_omega_6_fatty_acids_contribute_to_reduced_docosahexaenoic_acid_in_the_developing_brain_and_inhibit_secondary_neurite_growth_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0006-8993(08)01884-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -