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Melanocortin 1 receptor genotype, past environmental sun exposure, and risk of multiple sclerosis.
Neurology 2008; 71(8):583-9Neur

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Low past sun exposure, fair skin type, and polymorphisms of the MC1R gene have been associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) risk. We aimed to investigate the interplay between melanocortin 1 receptor gene variants, red hair/fair skin phenotype, and past environmental sun exposure in MS.

METHODS

Population-based case-control study in Tasmania, Australia, involving 136 cases with MS and 272 controls randomly drawn from the community and matched on sex and year of birth. Measures included past sun exposure by calendar and questionnaire, spectrophotometric skin type, and MC1R genotype, with any MC1R Arg151Cys, Arg160Trp, or Asp294His alleles present denoted as red hair color (RHC) variant.

RESULTS

The association between RHC variant genotype and MS was more evident for women (odds ratio 2.02 [1.15-3.54]) than for men (odds ratio 0.65 [0.27-1.57]) (difference in effect, p = 0.03). The RHC variant genotype was associated with behavioral sun avoidance. In addition, increasing summer sun exposure at ages 6 through 10 years was associated with reduced MS risk among those with no RHC variant (p = 0.03), but not among those with RHC variant genotype (p = 0.15; difference in effect, p = 0.02). Similar findings were evident for other past sun exposure measures and when the sample was restricted to women only.

CONCLUSION

The interplay between red hair color variant genotype, red hair/fair skin phenotype, and multiple sclerosis (MS) is complex. The modification of past sun exposure by MC1R genotype provides further support that ultraviolet radiation or derivatives such as vitamin D may be causally related to a reduced MS risk.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital, Parkville Victoria 3052, Australia. terry.dwyer@mcri.edu.auNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18711112

Citation

Dwyer, T, et al. "Melanocortin 1 Receptor Genotype, Past Environmental Sun Exposure, and Risk of Multiple Sclerosis." Neurology, vol. 71, no. 8, 2008, pp. 583-9.
Dwyer T, van der Mei I, Ponsonby AL, et al. Melanocortin 1 receptor genotype, past environmental sun exposure, and risk of multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 2008;71(8):583-9.
Dwyer, T., van der Mei, I., Ponsonby, A. L., Taylor, B. V., Stankovich, J., McKay, J. D., ... Dickinson, J. L. (2008). Melanocortin 1 receptor genotype, past environmental sun exposure, and risk of multiple sclerosis. Neurology, 71(8), pp. 583-9. doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000323928.57408.93.
Dwyer T, et al. Melanocortin 1 Receptor Genotype, Past Environmental Sun Exposure, and Risk of Multiple Sclerosis. Neurology. 2008 Aug 19;71(8):583-9. PubMed PMID: 18711112.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Melanocortin 1 receptor genotype, past environmental sun exposure, and risk of multiple sclerosis. AU - Dwyer,T, AU - van der Mei,I, AU - Ponsonby,A-L, AU - Taylor,B V, AU - Stankovich,J, AU - McKay,J D, AU - Thomson,R J, AU - Polanowski,A M, AU - Dickinson,J L, PY - 2008/8/20/pubmed PY - 2008/10/8/medline PY - 2008/8/20/entrez SP - 583 EP - 9 JF - Neurology JO - Neurology VL - 71 IS - 8 N2 - OBJECTIVE: Low past sun exposure, fair skin type, and polymorphisms of the MC1R gene have been associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) risk. We aimed to investigate the interplay between melanocortin 1 receptor gene variants, red hair/fair skin phenotype, and past environmental sun exposure in MS. METHODS: Population-based case-control study in Tasmania, Australia, involving 136 cases with MS and 272 controls randomly drawn from the community and matched on sex and year of birth. Measures included past sun exposure by calendar and questionnaire, spectrophotometric skin type, and MC1R genotype, with any MC1R Arg151Cys, Arg160Trp, or Asp294His alleles present denoted as red hair color (RHC) variant. RESULTS: The association between RHC variant genotype and MS was more evident for women (odds ratio 2.02 [1.15-3.54]) than for men (odds ratio 0.65 [0.27-1.57]) (difference in effect, p = 0.03). The RHC variant genotype was associated with behavioral sun avoidance. In addition, increasing summer sun exposure at ages 6 through 10 years was associated with reduced MS risk among those with no RHC variant (p = 0.03), but not among those with RHC variant genotype (p = 0.15; difference in effect, p = 0.02). Similar findings were evident for other past sun exposure measures and when the sample was restricted to women only. CONCLUSION: The interplay between red hair color variant genotype, red hair/fair skin phenotype, and multiple sclerosis (MS) is complex. The modification of past sun exposure by MC1R genotype provides further support that ultraviolet radiation or derivatives such as vitamin D may be causally related to a reduced MS risk. SN - 1526-632X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18711112/Melanocortin_1_receptor_genotype_past_environmental_sun_exposure_and_risk_of_multiple_sclerosis_ L2 - http://www.neurology.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=18711112 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -