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Explicit identification and implicit recognition of facial emotions: I. Age effects in males and females across 10 decades.
J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2009 Apr; 31(3):257-77.JC

Abstract

A number of psychiatric and neurological disorders are characterized by impairments in facial emotion recognition. Recognition of individual emotions has implicated limbic, basal ganglionic, and frontal brain regions. Since these regions are also implicated in age-related decline and sex differences in emotion processing, an understanding of normative variation is important for assessing deficits in clinical groups. An internet-based test ("WebNeuro") was administered to 1,000 healthy participants (6 to 91 years, 53% female) to assess explicit identification of basic expressions of emotion (happiness, sadness, fear, anger, disgust, neutral). A subsequent implicit recognition condition was based on a priming protocol, in which explicit identification provided the "study" phase. Responses were most accurate for happiness and slowest for fear in the explicit condition, but least accurate for happiness and fastest for fear in the implicit condition. The effects of age, by contrast, showed a similar pattern for both explicit and implicit conditions, following a nonlinear distribution in which performance improved from childhood through adolescence and early adulthood and declined in later adulthood. Females were better than males at explicit identification of fear in particular. These findings are consistent with the priority of threat-related signals, but indicate opposing biases depending on whether emotion processing is conscious or nonconscious. The lifespan trends in emotion processing over 10 decades point to an interaction of brain-based (maturation, stability, and then atrophy of cortical and subcortical systems) and experiential contributing factors. These findings provide a robust normative platform for assessing clinical groups.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Brain Dynamics Centre, Westmead Millennium Institute & Western Clinical School, University of Sydney, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, New South Wales, Australia. lea_williams@wmi.usyd.edu.auNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18720177

Citation

Williams, Leanne M., et al. "Explicit Identification and Implicit Recognition of Facial Emotions: I. Age Effects in Males and Females Across 10 Decades." Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, vol. 31, no. 3, 2009, pp. 257-77.
Williams LM, Mathersul D, Palmer DM, et al. Explicit identification and implicit recognition of facial emotions: I. Age effects in males and females across 10 decades. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2009;31(3):257-77.
Williams, L. M., Mathersul, D., Palmer, D. M., Gur, R. C., Gur, R. E., & Gordon, E. (2009). Explicit identification and implicit recognition of facial emotions: I. Age effects in males and females across 10 decades. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 31(3), 257-77. https://doi.org/10.1080/13803390802255635
Williams LM, et al. Explicit Identification and Implicit Recognition of Facial Emotions: I. Age Effects in Males and Females Across 10 Decades. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2009;31(3):257-77. PubMed PMID: 18720177.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Explicit identification and implicit recognition of facial emotions: I. Age effects in males and females across 10 decades. AU - Williams,Leanne M, AU - Mathersul,Danielle, AU - Palmer,Donna M, AU - Gur,Ruben C, AU - Gur,Raquel E, AU - Gordon,Evian, Y1 - 2008/08/19/ PY - 2008/8/23/pubmed PY - 2009/7/11/medline PY - 2008/8/23/entrez SP - 257 EP - 77 JF - Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology JO - J Clin Exp Neuropsychol VL - 31 IS - 3 N2 - A number of psychiatric and neurological disorders are characterized by impairments in facial emotion recognition. Recognition of individual emotions has implicated limbic, basal ganglionic, and frontal brain regions. Since these regions are also implicated in age-related decline and sex differences in emotion processing, an understanding of normative variation is important for assessing deficits in clinical groups. An internet-based test ("WebNeuro") was administered to 1,000 healthy participants (6 to 91 years, 53% female) to assess explicit identification of basic expressions of emotion (happiness, sadness, fear, anger, disgust, neutral). A subsequent implicit recognition condition was based on a priming protocol, in which explicit identification provided the "study" phase. Responses were most accurate for happiness and slowest for fear in the explicit condition, but least accurate for happiness and fastest for fear in the implicit condition. The effects of age, by contrast, showed a similar pattern for both explicit and implicit conditions, following a nonlinear distribution in which performance improved from childhood through adolescence and early adulthood and declined in later adulthood. Females were better than males at explicit identification of fear in particular. These findings are consistent with the priority of threat-related signals, but indicate opposing biases depending on whether emotion processing is conscious or nonconscious. The lifespan trends in emotion processing over 10 decades point to an interaction of brain-based (maturation, stability, and then atrophy of cortical and subcortical systems) and experiential contributing factors. These findings provide a robust normative platform for assessing clinical groups. SN - 1744-411X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18720177/Explicit_identification_and_implicit_recognition_of_facial_emotions:_I__Age_effects_in_males_and_females_across_10_decades_ L2 - https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13803390802255635 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -