Occurrence of lactic acid bacteria and biogenic amines in biologically aged wines.Food Microbiol. 2008 Oct; 25(7):875-81.FM
Biologically aged sherry-type wines are elaborated by the so-called 'criadera and solera' system, which essentially involves development of the yeast on the wine surface forming a film velum for several years. Lactic acid bacteria can also develop and contribute to sherry-type wine quality, although their presence and role in this enological process have received very little attention. In this study, lactic acid bacteria microbiota and the presence of biogenic amines were investigated throughout the manufacture and biological aging of 36 samples of sherry wines. Malolactic fermentation was found to mainly take place during the first stage of biological ageing. The incidence and populations of lactic acid bacteria in sherry wines were low. The diversity of bacterial species isolated from the wines was greater than previously reported and included species of Lactobacillus, with prevailing Lactobacillus hilgardii, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus zeae and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The biogenic amine-producing capacity of the isolates was also determined. Five strains were putrescine producers, while another strain was shown to produce tyramine and phenylethylamine, simultaneously. L. zeae was one of the predominant species in wines during the biological aging and seemed to be one of the main putrescine producers. The biogenic amine composition of the wines investigated was similar to that reported for other types of wines. Putrescine was the major amine, followed by cadaverine, histamine and tyramine. The amine contents detected were lower than those usually reported in red wines.