Cerebrospinal fluid levels of cytokines in non-herpetic acute limbic encephalitis: comparison with herpes simplex encephalitis.Cytokine. 2008 Oct; 44(1):149-53.C
Recently, non-herpetic acute limbic encephalitis (NHALE) was identified as a new subgroup of limbic encephalitis. The immunological pathophysiology of NHALE is still unclear.
We measured the concentrations of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNFR1) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 15 patients with NHALE and 13 with herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) by cytometric bead array or ELISA.
The CSF concentrations of IL-6 in patients with NHALE and IFN-gamma, IL-6, IL-10, and sTNFR1 in HSE patients were significantly higher than those of controls (p<0.001, p=0.004, p<0.001, p=0.018, and p<0.001, respectively). There were significant correlations among CSF IL-6, IL-10, and sTNFR1 levels in HSE patients. The CSF concentrations of IFN-gamma and sTNFR1 levels of patients with HSE were significantly higher than those with NHALE (p=0.001 and p=0.002, respectively).
CSF cytokine levels in NHALE were relatively low compared with those in HSE. These results may be related to the favorable prognosis of NHALE.