[Embolization of indirect carotid-cavernous sinus fistula through the ophthalmic vein].Neurocirugia (Astur). 2008 Aug; 19(4):338-42.N
Indirect or dural carotid cavernous fistulas are abnormal connections between the cavernous sinus and meningeal branches of the external and/or internal carotid arteries. Most of them are idiopathic and occurs spontaneously. Symptoms vary from a tiny episcleral injection to a severe visual loss. Conservative therapy is recomended in cases with few symptoms and no leptomeningeal drainage, as spontaneous resolution is not infrequent. Whenever symptoms worsen, treatment of the fistula should be prescribed. Nowadays, transvenous endovascular treatment consisting of packing the cavernous sinus is the first choice. In most cases, cavernous sinus can be approached through the inferior petrosal sinus. However, sometimes that is not possible, and an approach directly through the superior ophthalmic vein could be necessary. We report a case of a patient with a dural carotid cavernous fistula treated with embolization of the cavernous sinus through the ophthalmic vein.