Antioxidant capacity of seed coat, dehulled bean, and whole black soybeans in relation to their distributions of total phenolics, phenolic acids, anthocyanins, and isoflavones.J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Sep 24; 56(18):8365-73.JA
Black soybeans have been used as an excellent dietary source for disease prevention and health promotion in China for hundreds of years. However, information about the distribution of health-promoting phenolic compositions in different physical parts of black soybean and the contribution of phenolic compositions to overall antioxidant capacity is limited. To elucidate the distribution of phenolic composition and their contribution to antioxidant activities in black soybean, the total and individual phenolic profiles, and antioxidant capacities of seed coat, dehulled and whole black soybean were systematically investigated. The seed coat exhibited much higher total phenolic indexes and antioxidant activities than whole and dehulled black soybean. Dehulled black soybean possessed similar levels of total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, 2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) activities as compared to whole yellow soybean. Cyanidin-3-glucoside, petunidin-3-glucoside, and peonidin-3-glucoside were detected in the seed coat but not in dehulled black soybean and yellow soybean. Among benzoic acid detected, caffeic and chlorogenic acid were the predominant phenolic acids. Whole black soybean and dehulled black soybean exhibited similar isoflavone contents in 7- O-beta-glucosides and malonylglucosides of daidzein and genistein. The seed coat possessed significantly (p < 0.05) lower 7- O-beta-glucosides and malonylglucosides of daidzein and genistein, acetylglycitin, and total isoflavones than whole and dehulled black soybean. The contribution of phenolics in the seed coat to the antioxidant activity of black soybean parts depends on the assay methods. When measured with the DPPH and FRAP methods, the seed coat contributed 90% of the total antioxidant capacity of black soybean. However, when measured with the ORAC method, the seed coat and dehulled portion contributed approximately equally the total antioxidant capacity of black soybeans. The information generated from this study on the distribution and content of their active components is useful for the effective use of black soybeans as an ingredient for promoting health.