Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) characterization and panton-valentine leukocidin gene occurrence for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Turkey, from 2003 to 2006.Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2008 Nov; 94(4):607-14.AV
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) cause serious community-acquired and nosocomial diseases all over the world. We determined the SCCmec types and occurrence of the PVL gene by using TaqMan real-time PCR method, and correlated these with phenotypic antibiotic susceptibility patterns for MRSA strains collected from Gulhane Military Medical Academy Hospital (GMMAH) during 4 years study period. To our knowledge, this is the first report from Turkey of molecular SCCmec typing analysis of MRSA stains. A total of 385 clinical MRSA isolates collected in the clinical and Microbiology Laboratory at GMMAH between 2003 and 2006 were included in the study. Overall, SCCmec types-I, II, III, IV, V, nontypeable and PVL occurrence were detected in 11 (2.8%), 3 (0.8%), 316 (82.1%), 20 (5.1%), 20 (5.1%), 15 (3.9%) and 5 (1.3%) isolates, respectively. A total of 330 (85.5%) were SCCmec-I/II/III and 40 (10.3%) were SCCmec IV/V. SCCmec-I/II/III isolates were recovered more from patients with serious infections in surgical departments especially those with intensive care units than the SCCmec-IV/V isolates (chi(2) = 13.560, P < 0.001). SCCmec-I/II/III MRSA strains were predominantly recovered from blood stream (53.0%, P = 0.014), while SCCmec-IV/V strains were predominately isolated from skin and soft tissue and abscess (55.0%, P < 0.001). The PVL gene was detected in 10.0% of SCCmec-IV/V isolates in contrast to 0.3% in SCCmec-I/II/III (chi(2) = 25.164, P < 0.001). SCCmec-I/II/III MRSA strains were more resistant to clindamycin (chi(2) = 5.078, P = 0.024), amoxicillin-clavulanate (chi(2) = 84.912, P < 0.001), erythromycin (chi(2) = 4.651, P = 0.031), gentamicin (chi(2) = 24.869, P < 0.001), and rifampin (chi(2) = 18.878, P < 0.001) than SCCmec-IV/V MRSA strains. This data indicates that SCCmec-III MRSA strains that do not carry the PVL gene are the predominant MRSA strains in our hospital setting in Ankara, capital of Turkey and that SCCmec-I/II/III MRSA strains may cause serious infections in surgical departments especially those with intensive care units.