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Dietary intake and nutritional adequacy prior to conception and during pregnancy: a follow-up study in the north of Portugal.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess maternal diet and nutritional adequacy prior to conception and during pregnancy.

DESIGN

Follow-up of a cohort of pregnant women with collection of questionnaire data throughout pregnancy and after delivery.

SETTING

Antenatal clinics at two public hospitals in Porto, Portugal.

SUBJECTS

Two hundred and forty-nine pregnant women who reported a gestational age below 13 weeks at the time they attended their first antenatal visit.

RESULTS

Intakes of energy and macronutrients were within recommended levels for most women. Pregnancy was accompanied by increases in the dietary intake of vitamins A and E, riboflavin, folate, Ca and Mg, but declines in the intake of alcohol and caffeine. The micronutrients with higher inadequacy prevalences prior to pregnancy were vitamin E (83%), folate (58%) and Mg (19%). These three micronutrients, together with Fe, were also those with the highest inadequacy prevalences during pregnancy (91%, 88%, 73% and 21%, respectively, for folate, Fe, vitamin E and Mg). Ninety-seven per cent of the women reported taking supplements of folic acid during the first trimester, but the median gestational age at initiation was 6.5 (interquartile range 5, 9) weeks. Self-reported prevalences of Fe and Mg supplementation were high, and increased throughout pregnancy.

CONCLUSION

The study identified low dietary intakes of vitamin E, folate and Mg both in the preconceptional period and during pregnancy, and low intake of Fe during pregnancy only. The low dietary intake of folate and the late initiation of supplementation indicate that current national guidelines are unlikely to be effective in preventing neural tube defects.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Porto Medical School, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal. ecbpinto@med.up.pt

    ,

    Source

    Public health nutrition 12:7 2009 Jul pg 922-31

    MeSH

    Adult
    Cohort Studies
    Diet
    Diet Surveys
    Dietary Supplements
    Female
    Folic Acid
    Follow-Up Studies
    Gestational Age
    Humans
    Iron, Dietary
    Magnesium
    Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
    Neural Tube Defects
    Nutrition Policy
    Nutritional Requirements
    Portugal
    Preconception Care
    Pregnancy
    Prenatal Care
    Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
    Vitamin E
    Young Adult

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    18752697

    Citation

    Pinto, Elisabete, et al. "Dietary Intake and Nutritional Adequacy Prior to Conception and During Pregnancy: a Follow-up Study in the North of Portugal." Public Health Nutrition, vol. 12, no. 7, 2009, pp. 922-31.
    Pinto E, Barros H, dos Santos Silva I. Dietary intake and nutritional adequacy prior to conception and during pregnancy: a follow-up study in the north of Portugal. Public Health Nutr. 2009;12(7):922-31.
    Pinto, E., Barros, H., & dos Santos Silva, I. (2009). Dietary intake and nutritional adequacy prior to conception and during pregnancy: a follow-up study in the north of Portugal. Public Health Nutrition, 12(7), pp. 922-31. doi:10.1017/S1368980008003595.
    Pinto E, Barros H, dos Santos Silva I. Dietary Intake and Nutritional Adequacy Prior to Conception and During Pregnancy: a Follow-up Study in the North of Portugal. Public Health Nutr. 2009;12(7):922-31. PubMed PMID: 18752697.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Dietary intake and nutritional adequacy prior to conception and during pregnancy: a follow-up study in the north of Portugal. AU - Pinto,Elisabete, AU - Barros,Henrique, AU - dos Santos Silva,Isabel, Y1 - 2008/08/27/ PY - 2008/8/30/pubmed PY - 2009/7/25/medline PY - 2008/8/30/entrez SP - 922 EP - 31 JF - Public health nutrition JO - Public Health Nutr VL - 12 IS - 7 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To assess maternal diet and nutritional adequacy prior to conception and during pregnancy. DESIGN: Follow-up of a cohort of pregnant women with collection of questionnaire data throughout pregnancy and after delivery. SETTING: Antenatal clinics at two public hospitals in Porto, Portugal. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and forty-nine pregnant women who reported a gestational age below 13 weeks at the time they attended their first antenatal visit. RESULTS: Intakes of energy and macronutrients were within recommended levels for most women. Pregnancy was accompanied by increases in the dietary intake of vitamins A and E, riboflavin, folate, Ca and Mg, but declines in the intake of alcohol and caffeine. The micronutrients with higher inadequacy prevalences prior to pregnancy were vitamin E (83%), folate (58%) and Mg (19%). These three micronutrients, together with Fe, were also those with the highest inadequacy prevalences during pregnancy (91%, 88%, 73% and 21%, respectively, for folate, Fe, vitamin E and Mg). Ninety-seven per cent of the women reported taking supplements of folic acid during the first trimester, but the median gestational age at initiation was 6.5 (interquartile range 5, 9) weeks. Self-reported prevalences of Fe and Mg supplementation were high, and increased throughout pregnancy. CONCLUSION: The study identified low dietary intakes of vitamin E, folate and Mg both in the preconceptional period and during pregnancy, and low intake of Fe during pregnancy only. The low dietary intake of folate and the late initiation of supplementation indicate that current national guidelines are unlikely to be effective in preventing neural tube defects. SN - 1475-2727 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18752697/full_citation/Dietary_intake_and_nutritional_adequacy_prior_to_conception_and_during_pregnancy:_a_follow_up_study_in_the_north_of_Por L2 - https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S1368980008003595/type/journal_article DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -