Optimization of ibuprofen gel formulations using experimental design technique for enhanced transdermal penetration.Int J Pharm. 2008 Nov 19; 364(1):14-20.IJ
The aims of this study were to develop a transdermal gel formulation for ibuprofen using experimental design techniques and to evaluate its pharmacokinetic properties. The three factors chosen for factorial design were the concentrations of drug, polyoxyethylene(5)cetyl/oleyl ether and ethanol and the levels of each factor were low, medium and high. Skin permeation rates and lag times of ibuprofen were evaluated using the Franz-type diffusion cell in order to optimize the gel formulation. The permeation rate of ibuprofen significantly increased in proportion to the drug concentration, but significantly decreased in proportion to POE(5)cetyl/oleyl ether concentration. Ethanol concentration was inversely proportional to the lag time. The pharmacokinetic properties of the optimized formulation were compared with those of two marketed products in rats. The relative bioavailability of ibuprofen gel compared to the two marketed products was 228.8% and 181.0%. In conclusion, a transdermal ibuprofen gel was formulated successfully using the technique of experimental design and these results helped in finding the optimum formulation for transdermal drug release.