Transition metal-catalyzed asymmetric reactions using P-chirogenic diaminophosphine oxides: DIAPHOXs.Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2008 Sep; 56(9):1213-28.CP
This review describes the development of a new class of chiral phosphorus ligands: amino acid-derived P-chirogenic diaminophosphine oxides, DIAPHOXs, and their application to several transition metal-catalyzed asymmetric allylic substitution reactions. Pd-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation with cyclic beta-keto esters as prochiral nucleophiles was initially examined using P-chirogenic diaminophosphine oxide 1a, resulting in highly enantioselective construction of quaternary stereocenters. Mechanistic investigations revealed that 1a is activated by N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)acetamide-induced tautomerization to afford a trivalent diamidophosphite species 13, which functions as the actual ligand. Pd-catalyzed asymmetric allylic substitutions of both acyclic and cyclic substrates were also examined using various nucleophiles such as malonate derivatives, nitromethane, aliphatic amines, and aromatic amines, providing a variety of chiral compounds with good to excellent enantioselectivity. In addition, Ir-catalyzed asymmetric allylic amination and alkylation of terminal allylic carbonates were examined using structurally optimized P-chirogenic diaminophosphine oxides, and the corresponding branched products were obtained in a highly regio- and enantioselective manner. Furthermore, the developed catalytic asymmetric process was successfully applied to the catalytic enantioselective synthesis of biologically active compounds, (R)-preclamol, (R)-baclofen hydrochloride, and (-)-paroxetine.