Inactivation of norovirus by chlorine disinfection of water.Water Res. 2008 Nov; 42(17):4562-8.WR
In an effort to validate previous research suggesting remarkable resistance of norovirus to free chlorine disinfection, we characterized the disinfection response of purified and dispersed Norwalk virus (NV) by bench-scale free chlorine disinfection using RT-PCR for virus assays. The inactivation of NV by two doses of free chlorine (1 and 5mg/L) at pH 6 and 5 degrees C based on two RT-PCR assays was similar to that of coliphage MS2, but much faster than that of poliovirus 1. Despite the underestimation of virus inactivation by RT-PCR assays, the predicted CT values for NV based on RT-PCR assays are lower than the ones for most other important waterborne viruses and the CT guidelines for chlorine disinfection of viruses under the Surface Water Treatment Rule by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Overall, the results of this study indicate that NV is not highly resistant to free chlorine disinfection as suggested by previous research and it is likely that NV contamination of drinking water can be controlled by adequate free chlorine disinfection practices with provision of proper pre-treatment processes before chlorination.