Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

An analgesia-delirium-sedation protocol for critically ill trauma patients reduces ventilator days and hospital length of stay.
J Trauma. 2008 Sep; 65(3):517-26.JT

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Analgesics and sedatives are required to maintain a calm and comfortable mechanically ventilated injured patient. Continuous sedative infusions have been shown to lengthen mechanical ventilation and hospital length of stay. Daily interruption of sedative infusions may reduce both of these variables. Implementation of an Analgesia-Delirium-Sedation (ADS) Protocol using objective assessments with a goal of maintaining an awake and comfortable patient may obviate the need for daily interruption of infusions in critically ill trauma patients. We examined the effects of such a protocol on ventilator duration, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay, hospital slength of stay, and medication requirements.

METHODS

A multidisciplinary team designed the protocol. Objective measures of pain (visual/objective pain assessment scale-VAS/OPAS), agitation (Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale-RASS), and delirium [Confusion Assessment Method {CAM-ICU}] were used. Medications were titrated to a RASS of -1 to +1 and VAS/OPAS <4. Haloperidol was used to treat delirium in CAM-ICU positive patients. Retrospective review of the local Project IMPACT database for a 6-month period in 2004 was compared with the same seasonal period in 2006 in which the ADS protocol was used. All mechanically ventilated trauma patients receiving infusions of narcotic, propofol, or benzodiazepine were included. Age, APACHE II score, Injury Severity Score, ventilator days, ventilator-free days at day 28, ICU length of stay, and hospital length of stay are reported as median values (interquartile range). Medication usage is reported as mean values (+/-SD). Differences in data were analyzed using Wilcoxon's rank-sum test or t test, as appropriate. Gender, mortality, and mechanism of injury were analyzed using chi analysis.

RESULTS

A total of 143 patients were included. Patients who died during their hospitalization were excluded except in the analysis of ventilator-free days at day 28. After exclusions, 61 patients were in the control group and 58 in the protocol group. The median duration of mechanical ventilation in the protocol group was 1.2 days (0.5-3.0) which was significantly reduced compared with 3.2 days (1.0-12.9) in the control group (p = 0.027). Analysis of ventilator-free days at day 28 found that the protocol group had 26.4 ventilator-free days (13.9-27.4) compared with 22.8 days (10.5-26.9) in the control group (p = 0.007). The median ICU length of stay was 5.9 days (2.3-18.2) in the control group and 4.1 days (2.5-8.3) in the protocol group (p = 0.21). Hospital length of stay was 12 days (7-17) in the protocol group in contrast to 18 days (10-27) in the control group (p = 0.036). Opiate equivalents and propofol use per patient was significantly reduced in the protocol group from 2,465 mg (+/-1,242 mg) to 1,641 mg (+/-1,250 mg) and 19,232 mg (+/-22,477 mg) to 10,057 (+/-14,616 mg), respectively (p < 0.001, p = 0.01).

CONCLUSION

An objective assessment- based ADS protocol without daily interruption of medication infusion decreases ventilator days and hospital length of stay in critically ill trauma patients.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Surgery, University of Cincinnati, 231 Albert Sabin Way, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0558, USA. bryce.robinson@.uc.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18784563

Citation

Robinson, Bryce R H., et al. "An Analgesia-delirium-sedation Protocol for Critically Ill Trauma Patients Reduces Ventilator Days and Hospital Length of Stay." The Journal of Trauma, vol. 65, no. 3, 2008, pp. 517-26.
Robinson BR, Mueller EW, Henson K, et al. An analgesia-delirium-sedation protocol for critically ill trauma patients reduces ventilator days and hospital length of stay. J Trauma. 2008;65(3):517-26.
Robinson, B. R., Mueller, E. W., Henson, K., Branson, R. D., Barsoum, S., & Tsuei, B. J. (2008). An analgesia-delirium-sedation protocol for critically ill trauma patients reduces ventilator days and hospital length of stay. The Journal of Trauma, 65(3), 517-26. https://doi.org/10.1097/TA.0b013e318181b8f6
Robinson BR, et al. An Analgesia-delirium-sedation Protocol for Critically Ill Trauma Patients Reduces Ventilator Days and Hospital Length of Stay. J Trauma. 2008;65(3):517-26. PubMed PMID: 18784563.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - An analgesia-delirium-sedation protocol for critically ill trauma patients reduces ventilator days and hospital length of stay. AU - Robinson,Bryce R H, AU - Mueller,Eric W, AU - Henson,Kathyrn, AU - Branson,Richard D, AU - Barsoum,Samuel, AU - Tsuei,Betty J, PY - 2008/9/12/pubmed PY - 2008/10/4/medline PY - 2008/9/12/entrez SP - 517 EP - 26 JF - The Journal of trauma JO - J Trauma VL - 65 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: Analgesics and sedatives are required to maintain a calm and comfortable mechanically ventilated injured patient. Continuous sedative infusions have been shown to lengthen mechanical ventilation and hospital length of stay. Daily interruption of sedative infusions may reduce both of these variables. Implementation of an Analgesia-Delirium-Sedation (ADS) Protocol using objective assessments with a goal of maintaining an awake and comfortable patient may obviate the need for daily interruption of infusions in critically ill trauma patients. We examined the effects of such a protocol on ventilator duration, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay, hospital slength of stay, and medication requirements. METHODS: A multidisciplinary team designed the protocol. Objective measures of pain (visual/objective pain assessment scale-VAS/OPAS), agitation (Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale-RASS), and delirium [Confusion Assessment Method {CAM-ICU}] were used. Medications were titrated to a RASS of -1 to +1 and VAS/OPAS <4. Haloperidol was used to treat delirium in CAM-ICU positive patients. Retrospective review of the local Project IMPACT database for a 6-month period in 2004 was compared with the same seasonal period in 2006 in which the ADS protocol was used. All mechanically ventilated trauma patients receiving infusions of narcotic, propofol, or benzodiazepine were included. Age, APACHE II score, Injury Severity Score, ventilator days, ventilator-free days at day 28, ICU length of stay, and hospital length of stay are reported as median values (interquartile range). Medication usage is reported as mean values (+/-SD). Differences in data were analyzed using Wilcoxon's rank-sum test or t test, as appropriate. Gender, mortality, and mechanism of injury were analyzed using chi analysis. RESULTS: A total of 143 patients were included. Patients who died during their hospitalization were excluded except in the analysis of ventilator-free days at day 28. After exclusions, 61 patients were in the control group and 58 in the protocol group. The median duration of mechanical ventilation in the protocol group was 1.2 days (0.5-3.0) which was significantly reduced compared with 3.2 days (1.0-12.9) in the control group (p = 0.027). Analysis of ventilator-free days at day 28 found that the protocol group had 26.4 ventilator-free days (13.9-27.4) compared with 22.8 days (10.5-26.9) in the control group (p = 0.007). The median ICU length of stay was 5.9 days (2.3-18.2) in the control group and 4.1 days (2.5-8.3) in the protocol group (p = 0.21). Hospital length of stay was 12 days (7-17) in the protocol group in contrast to 18 days (10-27) in the control group (p = 0.036). Opiate equivalents and propofol use per patient was significantly reduced in the protocol group from 2,465 mg (+/-1,242 mg) to 1,641 mg (+/-1,250 mg) and 19,232 mg (+/-22,477 mg) to 10,057 (+/-14,616 mg), respectively (p < 0.001, p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: An objective assessment- based ADS protocol without daily interruption of medication infusion decreases ventilator days and hospital length of stay in critically ill trauma patients. SN - 1529-8809 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18784563/An_analgesia_delirium_sedation_protocol_for_critically_ill_trauma_patients_reduces_ventilator_days_and_hospital_length_of_stay_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1097/TA.0b013e318181b8f6 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -