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Restoration of risk-propensity during sleep deprivation: caffeine, dextroamphetamine, and modafinil.
Aviat Space Environ Med. 2008 Sep; 79(9):867-74.AS

Abstract

INTRODUCTION

Sleep deprivation alters risk-related judgments, decision-making, and behavioral control. Stimulant medications are used to restore cognitive performance, but their effects on risk-taking and judgment in sleep-deprived subjects have not been explored.

METHODS

There were 54 healthy adults (29 men, 25 women; age range 18 to 36) who completed a test of cognitive ability and daily measures of risk-taking propensity, including the Brief Sensation Seeking Scale (BSSS), Evaluation of Risks (EVAR) scale, and the Balloon Analog RiskTask (BART). Following 44 h of continuous wakefulness, participants ingested caffeine 600 mg (N = 12), dextroamphetamine 20 mg (N = 16), modafinil 400 mg (N = 12), or a placebo (N = 14) in a double blind manner, and completed risk-taking measures 2 h later (i.e., 0535).

RESULTS

Relative to rested baseline, the placebo group showed a decline in risk-taking as measured by the BSSS (16% decline), EVAR Danger Seeking (32% decline) and Energy (22% decline), and BART (32% decline), consistent with previous reports of the effects of sleep deprivation. Comparisons among drug conditions showed that dextroamphetamine restored risk-taking propensity and risky behavior to baseline levels, an effect that was significantly greater than placebo or caffeine for several indices of risk-taking, but which did not differ from modafinil. Cognitive ability was significantly correlated with changes on some risk-taking indices following stimulant administration.

CONCLUSIONS

Stimulant medications, particularly dextroamphetamine, sustained risk-related attitudes and behavior during continuous wakefulness. The extent to which stimulants restore other aspects of judgment during sleep loss remains to be determined.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Neuroimaging Center, McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 115 Mill Street, Belmont, MA 02478, USA. killgore@mclean.harvard.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18785355

Citation

Killgore, William D S., et al. "Restoration of Risk-propensity During Sleep Deprivation: Caffeine, Dextroamphetamine, and Modafinil." Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, vol. 79, no. 9, 2008, pp. 867-74.
Killgore WD, Grugle NL, Killgore DB, et al. Restoration of risk-propensity during sleep deprivation: caffeine, dextroamphetamine, and modafinil. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2008;79(9):867-74.
Killgore, W. D., Grugle, N. L., Killgore, D. B., Leavitt, B. P., Watlington, G. I., McNair, S., & Balkin, T. J. (2008). Restoration of risk-propensity during sleep deprivation: caffeine, dextroamphetamine, and modafinil. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 79(9), 867-74.
Killgore WD, et al. Restoration of Risk-propensity During Sleep Deprivation: Caffeine, Dextroamphetamine, and Modafinil. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2008;79(9):867-74. PubMed PMID: 18785355.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Restoration of risk-propensity during sleep deprivation: caffeine, dextroamphetamine, and modafinil. AU - Killgore,William D S, AU - Grugle,Nancy L, AU - Killgore,Desiree B, AU - Leavitt,Brian P, AU - Watlington,George I, AU - McNair,Shanelle, AU - Balkin,Thomas J, PY - 2008/9/13/pubmed PY - 2008/11/1/medline PY - 2008/9/13/entrez SP - 867 EP - 74 JF - Aviation, space, and environmental medicine JO - Aviat Space Environ Med VL - 79 IS - 9 N2 - INTRODUCTION: Sleep deprivation alters risk-related judgments, decision-making, and behavioral control. Stimulant medications are used to restore cognitive performance, but their effects on risk-taking and judgment in sleep-deprived subjects have not been explored. METHODS: There were 54 healthy adults (29 men, 25 women; age range 18 to 36) who completed a test of cognitive ability and daily measures of risk-taking propensity, including the Brief Sensation Seeking Scale (BSSS), Evaluation of Risks (EVAR) scale, and the Balloon Analog RiskTask (BART). Following 44 h of continuous wakefulness, participants ingested caffeine 600 mg (N = 12), dextroamphetamine 20 mg (N = 16), modafinil 400 mg (N = 12), or a placebo (N = 14) in a double blind manner, and completed risk-taking measures 2 h later (i.e., 0535). RESULTS: Relative to rested baseline, the placebo group showed a decline in risk-taking as measured by the BSSS (16% decline), EVAR Danger Seeking (32% decline) and Energy (22% decline), and BART (32% decline), consistent with previous reports of the effects of sleep deprivation. Comparisons among drug conditions showed that dextroamphetamine restored risk-taking propensity and risky behavior to baseline levels, an effect that was significantly greater than placebo or caffeine for several indices of risk-taking, but which did not differ from modafinil. Cognitive ability was significantly correlated with changes on some risk-taking indices following stimulant administration. CONCLUSIONS: Stimulant medications, particularly dextroamphetamine, sustained risk-related attitudes and behavior during continuous wakefulness. The extent to which stimulants restore other aspects of judgment during sleep loss remains to be determined. SN - 0095-6562 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18785355/Restoration_of_risk_propensity_during_sleep_deprivation:_caffeine_dextroamphetamine_and_modafinil_ L2 - https://www.ingentaconnect.com/openurl?genre=article&issn=0095-6562&volume=79&issue=9&spage=867&aulast=Killgore DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -