[Stereotactic brain biopsy in the diagnosis of focal brain lesions in AIDS].Medicina (B Aires) 2008; 68(4):285-90M
Focal brain lesions are frequent complications among HIV/AIDS patients. Between January 1999 and May 2007, 83 procedures of stereotactic brain biopsies in HIV/AIDS patients with focal cerebral lesions were carried out. The inclusion criteria were lack of response to current diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines for brain lesions. All the samples underwent microscopic evaluation during surgery to assert valid material and delayed histopathological and microbiological examination. Forty one patient images demonstrated multiple brain lesions. Sixty two cases had supratentorial localization, 4 lesions were located beneath the tentorium and 17 showed both settings. Fifty one lesions presented peripheral enhancement after contrast computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A 100% of useful samples recovery was achieved. Progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML) was the most frequent diagnosis (29%), followed by primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) (23%), and toxoplasmosis (15.7%). Statistically significant association was observed between histopathological diagnosis and lesion location and between those and peripheral ring enhancement images. The positive diagnostic rate of the invasive procedure was 90.3%. The morbidity/mortality rate was 2.4% in this series. In conclusion, the stereotactic brain biopsy ordered early during the patient's evolution showed a good performance in order to achieve a prompt and accurate diagnosis and to guide the therapeutic scheme in these AIDS patients with focal brain lesions.