Response procedure and laterality effects in emotion recognition: implications for models of dichotic listening.Neuropsychologia. 2009 Jan; 47(1):23-9.N
The present study manipulated response procedure in a dichotic emotion recognition task as a means to investigate models of dichotic listening. Sixty-seven right-handed students were presented with dichotic pairs of the words bower, dower, power, and tower pronounced in a tone of sadness, anger, happiness, or neutrality. They were asked to identify the two emotional tones presented in each pair and completed the task twice, in two sessions separated by the administration of a handedness questionnaire. Participants completed the task under one of two response procedures. Thirty-four participants responded by crossing out face drawings corresponding to the emotions they perceived among four alternatives on a response sheet, whereas another group of 33 participants circled the corresponding words among four alternatives. Results revealed the expected left ear advantage (LEA) for emotion perception regardless of response procedure. However, the reliability of the LEA was greater with drawings than with words, whereas the magnitude of the LEA was substantially reduced in the second testing session for words when compared to drawings. These findings support a model of memory where the encoding and retrieval of nonverbal auditory material likely take place in the right cerebral hemisphere. Implications of these results for the representation of emotions in memory and models of dichotic listening are discussed.