Transmembrane signaling pathway mediates oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in vascular endothelial cells.Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Nov; 295(5):E1243-54.AJ
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death for adults in Western society. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), the major physiological inhibitor of plasminogen activators, has been implicated in both thrombogenesis and atherogenesis. Previous studies demonstrated that copper-oxidized low-density lipoprotein (C-oLDL) stimulated production of PAI-1 in vascular endothelial cells (EC). The present study examined the involvement of lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1) and Ras/Raf-1/ERK1/2 pathway in the upregulation of PAI-1 in cultured EC induced by oxidized LDLs. The results demonstrated that C-oLDL or FeSO(4)-oxidized LDL (F-oLDL) increased the expression of PAI-1 or LOX-1 in human umbilical vein EC (HUVEC) or coronary artery EC (HCAEC). Treatment with C-oLDL significantly increased the levels of H-Ras mRNA, protein, and the translocation of H-Ras to membrane fraction in EC. LOX-1 blocking antibody, Ras farnesylation inhibitor (FTI-277), or small interference RNA against H-Ras significantly reduced C-oLDL or LDL-induced expression of H-Ras and PAI-1 in EC. Incubation with C-oLDL or F-oLDL increased the phosphorylation of Raf-1 and ERK1/2 in EC compared with LDL or vehicle. Treatment with Raf-1 inhibitor blocked Raf-1 phosphorylation and the elevation of PAI-1 mRNA level in EC induced by C-oLDL or LDL. Treatment with PD-98059, an ERK1/2 inhibitor, blocked C-oLDL or LDL-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation or PAI-1 expression in EC. The results suggest that LOX-1, H-Ras, and Raf-1/ERK1/2 are implicated in PAI-1 expression induced by oxidized LDLs or LDL in cultured EC.