Evaluation of composts and liming materials in the phytostabilization of a mine soil using perennial ryegrass.Sci Total Environ. 2008 Nov 15; 406(1-2):43-56.ST
A microcosm experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) or garden waste compost (GWC), and liming materials in the rehabilitation of a soil affected by mining activities, and to study the use of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) for phystostabilization. The performance of the amendments was assessed by soil chemical parameters, total and bioavailable metals (Cu, Pb and Zn), soil enzymatic activities, and plant relative growth and mineral composition. In general, both composts corrected soil acidity and increased the total organic matter content of the soil, although with a better performance in the case of MSWC, especially when considering total N and available P and K levels in the amended soil. The application of both composts and liming materials led to a decrease in the mobile fractions of Cu, Pb and Zn, but mobilisable fractions of Cu and Zn increased with MSWC application. Plant biomass increased more than three times in the presence of 50 Mg MSWC ha(-1) and with the combined use of 25 or 50 Mg MSWC ha(-1) and CaO, but no significant differences were observed when GWC was applied. Plant tissue analysis showed that the treatments did not significantly reduce Cu, Pb and Zn uptake by the plant. Dehydrogenase, and the enzymes related to the N-cycle, urease and protease, had increased activities with increasing MSWC application rate. Conversely, the enzymatic activities of both enzymes related to the C-cycle, cellulase and beta-glucosidase, were only positively affected by GWC application, a compost obtained from raw materials rich in C. Principal component analyses evidenced this clear separation between the effect of MSWC on soil enzymes related to the N-cycle and of GWC on soil enzymes related to the C-cycle. This study indicates that MSWC (50 Mg ha(-1), limed or unlimed) can be used successfully in the remediation of a highly acidic metal-contaminated soil, allowing the establishment of perennial ryegrass.