A family history of type 2 diabetes is associated with glucose intolerance and obesity-related traits with evidence of excess maternal transmission for obesity-related traits in a South East Asian population.Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2008 Nov; 82(2):268-75.DR
To evaluate family history (FH) of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as a risk factor for impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), T2DM and related metabolic traits in South East Asia and to compare the effects of a paternal versus maternal history.
We studied 4717 men and women (68% Chinese, 18% Malays and 14% Asian Indians) living in Singapore. FH was considered positive if at least one first degree relative had T2DM. Obesity, fasting lipids, glucose and insulin levels were measured for all subjects. Insulin resistance (IR) was estimated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). An oral glucose tolerance test was carried for all subjects except those on diabetes medication.
A positive FH was associated with increased risk of IFG/IGT (OR=1.67, 95% CI=1.42-1.97) and T2DM (OR=2.95, 95% CI=2.36-3.70) as well as higher levels of obesity, HOMA-IR, fasting triglyceride (TG), and lower levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and HOMA-beta. A maternal history of T2DM appeared to have a greater impact on obesity-related traits than a paternal history of T2DM. Compared to individuals with no FH of T2DM, a maternal history was associated with (i) greater body mass index (BMI) (24.15kg/m(2) vs. 23.42kg/m(2), p=0.016) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (0.874 vs. 0.865, p=0.037) in men; and (ii) greater WHR (0.788 vs. 0.779, p=0.004), fasting triglyceride (1.23mmol/L vs. 1.09mmol/L, p<0.001), HOMA-IR (2.02 vs. 1.75, p<0.001), fasting plasma glucose (5.25mmol/L vs. 5.18mmol/L, p=0.005) and 2-h plasma glucose (6.01mmol/L vs. 5.78mmol/L, p=0.001) and lower HDL-C (1.41mmol/L vs. 1.47mmol/L, p=0.031) in women.
T2DM appears to be heritable in South East Asians with excess maternal transmission of obesity, IR and dyslipidemia.