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Reducing early smokers' risk for future smoking and other problem behavior: insights from a five-year longitudinal study.
J Adolesc Health. 2008 Oct; 43(4):394-400.JA

Abstract

PURPOSE

To identify risk and protective factors during early and later adolescence that predict future regular smoking and multiple problem behavior among at-risk youth, defined as those who tried smoking by grade 7.

METHODS

At grades 7, 10, and 12, data were collected from 2,000 early smokers drawn from California and Oregon. Multivariate regression analyses tested predictors of the two grade 12 outcomes in separate models using data from grades 7 and 10. Gender interactions and buffering of risk factors by protective factors were assessed.

RESULTS

For at-risk youth, consistent protective factors against future smoking and problem behavior included living in an intact nuclear family (all four models) plus getting good grades and parental disapproval of smoking/drug use (three of four models). Consistent risk factors included exposure to substance-using peers (four models) and problems in school (three of four models). Adult substance use was a predictor during early, but not later, adolescence; pro-smoking/drug use beliefs were significant predictors during later adolescence. There were few differences across gender and no significant buffers against risk.

CONCLUSIONS

At-risk youth would likely benefit from peer resistance training, parental involvement in prevention efforts, and efforts to improve educational performance during both middle school and high school. Changing pro-drug beliefs may be more effective among older adolescents.

Authors+Show Affiliations

RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, California 90407-2138, USA. Phyllis_Ellickson@rand.orgNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18809138

Citation

Ellickson, Phyllis L., et al. "Reducing Early Smokers' Risk for Future Smoking and Other Problem Behavior: Insights From a Five-year Longitudinal Study." The Journal of Adolescent Health : Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine, vol. 43, no. 4, 2008, pp. 394-400.
Ellickson PL, Tucker JS, Klein DJ. Reducing early smokers' risk for future smoking and other problem behavior: insights from a five-year longitudinal study. J Adolesc Health. 2008;43(4):394-400.
Ellickson, P. L., Tucker, J. S., & Klein, D. J. (2008). Reducing early smokers' risk for future smoking and other problem behavior: insights from a five-year longitudinal study. The Journal of Adolescent Health : Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine, 43(4), 394-400. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2008.03.004
Ellickson PL, Tucker JS, Klein DJ. Reducing Early Smokers' Risk for Future Smoking and Other Problem Behavior: Insights From a Five-year Longitudinal Study. J Adolesc Health. 2008;43(4):394-400. PubMed PMID: 18809138.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Reducing early smokers' risk for future smoking and other problem behavior: insights from a five-year longitudinal study. AU - Ellickson,Phyllis L, AU - Tucker,Joan S, AU - Klein,David J, Y1 - 2008/06/11/ PY - 2007/08/28/received PY - 2008/03/03/revised PY - 2008/03/06/accepted PY - 2008/9/24/pubmed PY - 2008/12/17/medline PY - 2008/9/24/entrez SP - 394 EP - 400 JF - The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine JO - J Adolesc Health VL - 43 IS - 4 N2 - PURPOSE: To identify risk and protective factors during early and later adolescence that predict future regular smoking and multiple problem behavior among at-risk youth, defined as those who tried smoking by grade 7. METHODS: At grades 7, 10, and 12, data were collected from 2,000 early smokers drawn from California and Oregon. Multivariate regression analyses tested predictors of the two grade 12 outcomes in separate models using data from grades 7 and 10. Gender interactions and buffering of risk factors by protective factors were assessed. RESULTS: For at-risk youth, consistent protective factors against future smoking and problem behavior included living in an intact nuclear family (all four models) plus getting good grades and parental disapproval of smoking/drug use (three of four models). Consistent risk factors included exposure to substance-using peers (four models) and problems in school (three of four models). Adult substance use was a predictor during early, but not later, adolescence; pro-smoking/drug use beliefs were significant predictors during later adolescence. There were few differences across gender and no significant buffers against risk. CONCLUSIONS: At-risk youth would likely benefit from peer resistance training, parental involvement in prevention efforts, and efforts to improve educational performance during both middle school and high school. Changing pro-drug beliefs may be more effective among older adolescents. SN - 1879-1972 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18809138/Reducing_early_smokers'_risk_for_future_smoking_and_other_problem_behavior:_insights_from_a_five_year_longitudinal_study_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1054-139X(08)00164-X DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -