Evaluation of "alperujo" composting based on organic matter degradation, humification and compost quality.Biodegradation. 2009 Apr; 20(2):257-70.B
The main by-product generated by the Spanish olive oil industry, a wet solid lignocellulosic material called "alperujo" (AL), was evaluated as a composting substrate by using different aeration strategies and bulking agents. The experiments showed that composting performance was mainly influenced by the type of bulking agent added, and by the number of mechanical turnings. The bulking agents tested in this study were cotton waste, grape stalk, a fresh cow bedding and olive leaf; the latter showed the worse performance. Forced ventilation alone was revealed to work inadequately in most of the experiments. The composting process involved a substantial degradation of the organic substrate with average losses of 48.4, 28.6, 53.7 and 57.0% for total organic matter, lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose, respectively. Both organic matter biodegradation and humification were greatly influenced by the lignocellulosic nature of the starting material, which led to low organic matter and nitrogen loss rates and a progressive increase in more humified substances, as revealed by the end-values of the humification indices. The resulting composts were of good quality in terms of nutrient content, stabilised and non-phytotoxic organic matter and low heavy metal content. This demonstrates that composting technology can be used as an alternative treatment method to turn AL into compost that can be used as organic amendments or fertilisers for agricultural systems.