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Timing of extinction relative to acquisition: a parametric analysis of fear extinction in humans.
Behav Neurosci. 2008 Oct; 122(5):1016-30.BN

Abstract

Fear extinction is a reduction in conditioned fear following repeated exposure to the feared cue in the absence of any aversive event. Extinguished fear often reappears after extinction through spontaneous recovery. Animal studies suggest that spontaneous recovery can be abolished if extinction occurs within minutes of acquisition. However, a limited number of human extinction studies have shown that short interval extinction does not prevent the return of fear. For this reason, we performed an in-depth parametric analysis of human fear extinction using fear-potentiated startle. Using separate single-cue and differential conditioning paradigms, participants were fear conditioned and then underwent extinction either 10 min (Immediate) or 72 hr (Delayed) later. Testing for spontaneous recovery occurred 96 hr after acquisition. In the single cue paradigm, the Immediate and Delayed groups exhibited differences in context, but not fear, conditioning. With differential conditioning, there were no differences in context conditioning and the Immediate group displayed less spontaneous recovery. Thus, the results remain inconclusive regarding spontaneous recovery and the timing of extinction and are discussed in terms of performing translational studies of fear in humans.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA. seth.norrholm@va.govNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18823159

Citation

Norrholm, Seth D., et al. "Timing of Extinction Relative to Acquisition: a Parametric Analysis of Fear Extinction in Humans." Behavioral Neuroscience, vol. 122, no. 5, 2008, pp. 1016-30.
Norrholm SD, Vervliet B, Jovanovic T, et al. Timing of extinction relative to acquisition: a parametric analysis of fear extinction in humans. Behav Neurosci. 2008;122(5):1016-30.
Norrholm, S. D., Vervliet, B., Jovanovic, T., Boshoven, W., Myers, K. M., Davis, M., Rothbaum, B., & Duncan, E. J. (2008). Timing of extinction relative to acquisition: a parametric analysis of fear extinction in humans. Behavioral Neuroscience, 122(5), 1016-30. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0012604
Norrholm SD, et al. Timing of Extinction Relative to Acquisition: a Parametric Analysis of Fear Extinction in Humans. Behav Neurosci. 2008;122(5):1016-30. PubMed PMID: 18823159.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Timing of extinction relative to acquisition: a parametric analysis of fear extinction in humans. AU - Norrholm,Seth D, AU - Vervliet,Bram, AU - Jovanovic,Tanja, AU - Boshoven,William, AU - Myers,Karyn M, AU - Davis,Michael, AU - Rothbaum,Barbara, AU - Duncan,Erica J, PY - 2008/10/1/pubmed PY - 2009/2/4/medline PY - 2008/10/1/entrez SP - 1016 EP - 30 JF - Behavioral neuroscience JO - Behav Neurosci VL - 122 IS - 5 N2 - Fear extinction is a reduction in conditioned fear following repeated exposure to the feared cue in the absence of any aversive event. Extinguished fear often reappears after extinction through spontaneous recovery. Animal studies suggest that spontaneous recovery can be abolished if extinction occurs within minutes of acquisition. However, a limited number of human extinction studies have shown that short interval extinction does not prevent the return of fear. For this reason, we performed an in-depth parametric analysis of human fear extinction using fear-potentiated startle. Using separate single-cue and differential conditioning paradigms, participants were fear conditioned and then underwent extinction either 10 min (Immediate) or 72 hr (Delayed) later. Testing for spontaneous recovery occurred 96 hr after acquisition. In the single cue paradigm, the Immediate and Delayed groups exhibited differences in context, but not fear, conditioning. With differential conditioning, there were no differences in context conditioning and the Immediate group displayed less spontaneous recovery. Thus, the results remain inconclusive regarding spontaneous recovery and the timing of extinction and are discussed in terms of performing translational studies of fear in humans. SN - 0735-7044 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18823159/Timing_of_extinction_relative_to_acquisition:_a_parametric_analysis_of_fear_extinction_in_humans_ L2 - http://content.apa.org/journals/bne/122/5/1016 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -