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Emotional responses to music: the need to consider underlying mechanisms.
Behav Brain Sci. 2008 Oct; 31(5):559-75; discussion 575-621.BB

Abstract

Research indicates that people value music primarily because of the emotions it evokes. Yet, the notion of musical emotions remains controversial, and researchers have so far been unable to offer a satisfactory account of such emotions. We argue that the study of musical emotions has suffered from a neglect of underlying mechanisms. Specifically, researchers have studied musical emotions without regard to how they were evoked, or have assumed that the emotions must be based on the "default" mechanism for emotion induction, a cognitive appraisal. Here, we present a novel theoretical framework featuring six additional mechanisms through which music listening may induce emotions: (1) brain stem reflexes, (2) evaluative conditioning, (3) emotional contagion, (4) visual imagery, (5) episodic memory, and (6) musical expectancy. We propose that these mechanisms differ regarding such characteristics as their information focus, ontogenetic development, key brain regions, cultural impact, induction speed, degree of volitional influence, modularity, and dependence on musical structure. By synthesizing theory and findings from different domains, we are able to provide the first set of hypotheses that can help researchers to distinguish among the mechanisms. We show that failure to control for the underlying mechanism may lead to inconsistent or non-interpretable findings. Thus, we argue that the new framework may guide future research and help to resolve previous disagreements in the field. We conclude that music evokes emotions through mechanisms that are not unique to music, and that the study of musical emotions could benefit the emotion field as a whole by providing novel paradigms for emotion induction.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. patrik.juslin@psyk.uu.seNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18826699

Citation

Juslin, Patrik N., and Daniel Västfjäll. "Emotional Responses to Music: the Need to Consider Underlying Mechanisms." The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, vol. 31, no. 5, 2008, pp. 559-75; discussion 575-621.
Juslin PN, Västfjäll D. Emotional responses to music: the need to consider underlying mechanisms. Behav Brain Sci. 2008;31(5):559-75; discussion 575-621.
Juslin, P. N., & Västfjäll, D. (2008). Emotional responses to music: the need to consider underlying mechanisms. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 31(5), 559-75; discussion 575-621. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X08005293
Juslin PN, Västfjäll D. Emotional Responses to Music: the Need to Consider Underlying Mechanisms. Behav Brain Sci. 2008;31(5):559-75; discussion 575-621. PubMed PMID: 18826699.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Emotional responses to music: the need to consider underlying mechanisms. AU - Juslin,Patrik N, AU - Västfjäll,Daniel, PY - 2008/10/2/pubmed PY - 2009/2/3/medline PY - 2008/10/2/entrez SP - 559-75; discussion 575-621 JF - The Behavioral and brain sciences JO - Behav Brain Sci VL - 31 IS - 5 N2 - Research indicates that people value music primarily because of the emotions it evokes. Yet, the notion of musical emotions remains controversial, and researchers have so far been unable to offer a satisfactory account of such emotions. We argue that the study of musical emotions has suffered from a neglect of underlying mechanisms. Specifically, researchers have studied musical emotions without regard to how they were evoked, or have assumed that the emotions must be based on the "default" mechanism for emotion induction, a cognitive appraisal. Here, we present a novel theoretical framework featuring six additional mechanisms through which music listening may induce emotions: (1) brain stem reflexes, (2) evaluative conditioning, (3) emotional contagion, (4) visual imagery, (5) episodic memory, and (6) musical expectancy. We propose that these mechanisms differ regarding such characteristics as their information focus, ontogenetic development, key brain regions, cultural impact, induction speed, degree of volitional influence, modularity, and dependence on musical structure. By synthesizing theory and findings from different domains, we are able to provide the first set of hypotheses that can help researchers to distinguish among the mechanisms. We show that failure to control for the underlying mechanism may lead to inconsistent or non-interpretable findings. Thus, we argue that the new framework may guide future research and help to resolve previous disagreements in the field. We conclude that music evokes emotions through mechanisms that are not unique to music, and that the study of musical emotions could benefit the emotion field as a whole by providing novel paradigms for emotion induction. SN - 1469-1825 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18826699/Emotional_responses_to_music:_the_need_to_consider_underlying_mechanisms_ L2 - https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S0140525X08005293/type/journal_article DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -