They helped modernize Turkey's medical education and practice: refugees from Nazism 1933-1945.Gesnerus. 2008; 65(1-2):56-85.G
This paper discusses a dimly lit and largely unknown bit of 20th century history. Starting in 1933,Turkey reformed its medical health care system using invitees fleeing the Nazis and for whom America was out of reach because of restrictive immigration laws and wide-spread anti-Semitic hiring bias at its universities. Among the invitees were several medical scholars who played a large role in westernizing the new Turkish republic's medical practice and research as well as its school curricula.