Enteral nutrients potentiate the intestinotrophic action of glucagon-like peptide-2 in association with increased insulin-like growth factor-I responses in rats.Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2008 Dec; 295(6):R1794-802.AJ
Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a nutrient-dependent, intestinotrophic hormone derived from posttranslational processing of proglucagon in the distal bowel. GLP-2 is thought to act through indirect mediators, such as IGF-I. We investigated whether intestinal expression of GLP-2 and IGF-I system components are increased with the mucosal growth induced by enteral nutrient (EN) and/or a low dose of GLP-2 in parenterally fed rats. Rats were randomized to four treatment groups using a 2 x 2 design and maintained with parenteral nutrition (PN) for 7 days: PN alone, EN, GLP-2, and EN+GLP-2; n = 7-9. The two main treatment effects are +/-GLP-2 (100 microg.kg body wt(-1).day(-1)) and +/-EN (43% of energy needs, days 4-6). Combination treatment with EN+GLP-2 induced synergistic intestinal growth in ileum, resulting in greater mucosal cellularity, sucrase segmental activity, and gain of body weight (ENxGLP-2, P < 0.04). In addition, EN+GLP-2 induced a significant 28% increase in plasma concentration of bioactive GLP-2, a significant 102% increase in ileal proglucagon mRNA with no change in ileal dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) specific activity, and significantly reduced plasma DPP-IV activity compared with GLP-2. This indicates that EN potentiates the intestinotrophic action of GLP-2. Proliferation of enterocytes due to GLP-2 infusion was associated with greater expression of ileal proglucagon, GLP-2 receptor, IGF-I, IGF binding protein-3 mRNAs, and greater IGF-I peptide concentration in ileum (P < 0.032). Ileal IGF-I mRNA was positively correlated with expression of proglucagon, GLP-2R, and IGFBP-5 mRNAs (R2 = 0.43-0.56, P < 0.0001). Our findings support the hypothesis that IGF-I is one of the downstream mediators of GLP-2 action in a physiological model of intestinal growth.