Protective effects of IRFI-042 in monensin induced neurotoxicity in chicks.Food Chem Toxicol. 2008 Nov; 46(11):3528-33.FC
Monensin, a well known ionophore antibiotic, may cause severe damage in neuronal cells by altering Na+/K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase. We investigated whether IRFI-042, a synthetic analogue of vitamin E, may block lipid peroxidation in neuronal cells and protect against monensin neurotoxicity in chicks. Monensin toxicity was induced in chicks by once-daily administration (150 mg/kg by oral gavages), for 8 days. Sham animals received a saline solution and were used as controls. All animals were randomized to receive either IRFI-042 (20 mg/kg) or its vehicle. Survival rate, brain lipid peroxidation, mRNA for neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthases (nNOS and iNOS) and brain histological evaluations, including immunohistochemical expression of nNOS and iNOS were performed. Monensin administration decreased survival rate, induced behavioural changes, increased brain lipid peroxidation, reduced brain nNOS mRNA and immunostaining and enhanced iNOS mRNA and immunostaining in the brain in chicks. IRFI-042 significantly improved the survival rate and counteracted monensin-induced changes in chick brains. Our data suggest that monensin is responsible of neurotoxicity in chicks by inducing oxidative stress/lipid peroxidation and that IRFI-042 might represent a useful pharmacological approach to protect against the neuronal damage induced by this monovalent carboxylic ionophorous polyether antibiotic.