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Bioequivalence and pharmacokinetic comparison of a single 200-mg dose of meclofenoxate hydrochloride capsule and tablet formulations in healthy Chinese adult male volunteers: a randomized sequence, open-label, two-period crossover study.
Clin Ther. 2008 Sep; 30(9):1651-7.CT

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Meclofenoxate hydrochloride is a psychostimulant in the nootropic agent group available in capsule and tablet formulations approved for traumatic cataphora, alcoholic poisoning, anoxia neonatorum, and children's enuresis in China. Although these 2 generic formulations are marketed in China, information regarding their pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence in humans has not been published.

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetic properties and bioequivalence of the capsule (test) and tablet (reference) formulations of meclofenoxate hydrochloride 200 mg in healthy Chinese volunteers.

METHODS

This single-dose, randomized-sequence, open-label, 2-period crossover study was performed at the Nanjing First Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China. Eligible subjects were healthy male volunteers who were randomly assigned at a 1:1 ratio to receive a single 200-mg dose of the test or reference formulation, followed by a 1-week washout period and administration of the alternate formulation. The study drugs were administered after a 12-hour overnight fast. As a prodrug, meclofenoxate is hydrolyzed into 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid and is not detected in plasma. The active metabolite of meclofenoxate, chlorophenoxyacetic acid, was assayed using a high-performance liquid chromatography method. For analysis of pharmacokinetic properties, including Cmax, AUC0-24, and AUC0-infinity, blood samples were obtained at 0.33, 0.67, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 14, and 24 hours after administration. The formulations were considered bioequivalent if the log-transformed ratios of Cmax and AUC were within the predetermined equivalence range (80%-125%) as established by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Subjects were interviewed concerning the occurrence of adverse events including excitement, insomnia, lassitude, and headache. Tolerability was assessed at baseline (before administration) and at 1, 2, 6, and 12 hours after administration by monitoring vital signs and laboratory tests (hematology, blood biochemistry, hepatic function, and urinalysis).

RESULTS

Twenty-four Chinese male subjects (mean [range]age,23.5[22-30]years;weight,63.3[56-68]kg; height, 171 [165-184] cm) were enrolled; all completed the study. No period or sequence effect was observed. The 90% CIs for the log-transformed ratios of chlorophenoxyacetic acid Cmax, AUC0-24, and AUC0-infinity were 95.7 to 122.9, 97.6 to 111.9, and 97.8 to 111.7, respectively (all, P>0.05). Similar results were found for the data without log-transformation. No adverse events were reported or observed during this single-dose study.

CONCLUSIONS

In this small study in healthy Chinese adult male volunteers, a single 200-mg dose of the capsule formulation was found to be bioequivalent to a single 200-mg dose of the tablet formulation based on the US FDA's regulatory definition (rate and extent of absorption). Both formulations were well tolerated.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Nanjing First Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial

Language

eng

PubMed ID

18840370

Citation

Zou, Jian-Jun, et al. "Bioequivalence and Pharmacokinetic Comparison of a Single 200-mg Dose of Meclofenoxate Hydrochloride Capsule and Tablet Formulations in Healthy Chinese Adult Male Volunteers: a Randomized Sequence, Open-label, Two-period Crossover Study." Clinical Therapeutics, vol. 30, no. 9, 2008, pp. 1651-7.
Zou JJ, Ji HJ, Wu DW, et al. Bioequivalence and pharmacokinetic comparison of a single 200-mg dose of meclofenoxate hydrochloride capsule and tablet formulations in healthy Chinese adult male volunteers: a randomized sequence, open-label, two-period crossover study. Clin Ther. 2008;30(9):1651-7.
Zou, J. J., Ji, H. J., Wu, D. W., Yao, J., Hu, Q., Xiao, D. W., & Wang, G. J. (2008). Bioequivalence and pharmacokinetic comparison of a single 200-mg dose of meclofenoxate hydrochloride capsule and tablet formulations in healthy Chinese adult male volunteers: a randomized sequence, open-label, two-period crossover study. Clinical Therapeutics, 30(9), 1651-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinthera.2008.09.013
Zou JJ, et al. Bioequivalence and Pharmacokinetic Comparison of a Single 200-mg Dose of Meclofenoxate Hydrochloride Capsule and Tablet Formulations in Healthy Chinese Adult Male Volunteers: a Randomized Sequence, Open-label, Two-period Crossover Study. Clin Ther. 2008;30(9):1651-7. PubMed PMID: 18840370.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Bioequivalence and pharmacokinetic comparison of a single 200-mg dose of meclofenoxate hydrochloride capsule and tablet formulations in healthy Chinese adult male volunteers: a randomized sequence, open-label, two-period crossover study. AU - Zou,Jian-Jun, AU - Ji,Hong-Jian, AU - Wu,Ding-Wei, AU - Yao,Jing, AU - Hu,Qin, AU - Xiao,Da-Wei, AU - Wang,Guang-Ji, PY - 2008/07/18/accepted PY - 2008/10/9/pubmed PY - 2009/1/7/medline PY - 2008/10/9/entrez SP - 1651 EP - 7 JF - Clinical therapeutics JO - Clin Ther VL - 30 IS - 9 N2 - BACKGROUND: Meclofenoxate hydrochloride is a psychostimulant in the nootropic agent group available in capsule and tablet formulations approved for traumatic cataphora, alcoholic poisoning, anoxia neonatorum, and children's enuresis in China. Although these 2 generic formulations are marketed in China, information regarding their pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence in humans has not been published. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetic properties and bioequivalence of the capsule (test) and tablet (reference) formulations of meclofenoxate hydrochloride 200 mg in healthy Chinese volunteers. METHODS: This single-dose, randomized-sequence, open-label, 2-period crossover study was performed at the Nanjing First Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China. Eligible subjects were healthy male volunteers who were randomly assigned at a 1:1 ratio to receive a single 200-mg dose of the test or reference formulation, followed by a 1-week washout period and administration of the alternate formulation. The study drugs were administered after a 12-hour overnight fast. As a prodrug, meclofenoxate is hydrolyzed into 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid and is not detected in plasma. The active metabolite of meclofenoxate, chlorophenoxyacetic acid, was assayed using a high-performance liquid chromatography method. For analysis of pharmacokinetic properties, including Cmax, AUC0-24, and AUC0-infinity, blood samples were obtained at 0.33, 0.67, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 14, and 24 hours after administration. The formulations were considered bioequivalent if the log-transformed ratios of Cmax and AUC were within the predetermined equivalence range (80%-125%) as established by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Subjects were interviewed concerning the occurrence of adverse events including excitement, insomnia, lassitude, and headache. Tolerability was assessed at baseline (before administration) and at 1, 2, 6, and 12 hours after administration by monitoring vital signs and laboratory tests (hematology, blood biochemistry, hepatic function, and urinalysis). RESULTS: Twenty-four Chinese male subjects (mean [range]age,23.5[22-30]years;weight,63.3[56-68]kg; height, 171 [165-184] cm) were enrolled; all completed the study. No period or sequence effect was observed. The 90% CIs for the log-transformed ratios of chlorophenoxyacetic acid Cmax, AUC0-24, and AUC0-infinity were 95.7 to 122.9, 97.6 to 111.9, and 97.8 to 111.7, respectively (all, P>0.05). Similar results were found for the data without log-transformation. No adverse events were reported or observed during this single-dose study. CONCLUSIONS: In this small study in healthy Chinese adult male volunteers, a single 200-mg dose of the capsule formulation was found to be bioequivalent to a single 200-mg dose of the tablet formulation based on the US FDA's regulatory definition (rate and extent of absorption). Both formulations were well tolerated. SN - 0149-2918 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/18840370/Bioequivalence_and_pharmacokinetic_comparison_of_a_single_200_mg_dose_of_meclofenoxate_hydrochloride_capsule_and_tablet_formulations_in_healthy_Chinese_adult_male_volunteers:_a_randomized_sequence_open_label_two_period_crossover_study_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0149-2918(08)00306-8 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -